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The Horned Toad

Analysis | Text-Dependent

Source Lexile®: 920L





Writers often draw from their own experiences growing up and recreate incidents which made lasting impressions on them. Such is the case with Gerald Haslam in "The Horned Toad," which reflects his experience growing up in Oildale, California when his great-grandmother moved in with the family.


Writing Directions

In "The Horned Toad," Haslam must adjust to living with Great Grandma, who has come to live with the family. Although the relationship between the two is strained at first, their relationship changes and grows over time.


Write an essay in which you make a claim about what Haslam learns as a result of his relationship with his great-grandma.

In the body of your essay:

  • Discuss how Haslam initially reacts to his great-grandma's arrival, how he perceives and interacts with her, and how she, in turn, perceives and interacts with him.
  • Explain what enables Haslam to change and form a connection with his great-grandmother, and how his use of symbolism reflects this changing relationship.


In your conclusion, describe why Haslam's experience with his great-grandma made such a lasting impression on him and why the lesson he learned is especially significant.


In writing your essay, clearly address all parts of the writing task, support your main ideas with evidence from the text, use precise and descriptive language, and proofread your paper to correct errors in the conventions of written English.


Note: Underlined words are defined in the Vocabulary List. See Source 2 to see these definitions.



Source 1

"The Horned Toad" by Gerald Haslam



"¡Expectoran su sangre!" exclaimed Great Grandma when I showed her the small horned toad I had removed from my breast pocket. I turned toward my mother, who translated: "They spit blood."


"De los ojos," Grandma added. "From their eyes," Mother explained, herself uncomfortable in the presence of the small beast.

I grinned, "Awwwwww."


But my great-grandmother did not smile. "Son muy tóxicos," she nodded with finality. Mother moved back an involuntary step, her hands suddenly busy at her breast. "Put that thing down," she ordered.


"His name's John," I said.


"Put John down and not in your pocket, either," my mother nearly shouted. "Those things are very poisonous. Didn't you understand what Grandma said?"


I shook my head.


"Well . . ." Mother looked from one of us to the other — spanning four generations of California, standing three feet apart — and said, "Of course you didn't. Please take him back where you got him, and be careful. We'll all feel better when you do." The tone of her voice told me that the discussion had ended, so I released the little reptile where I'd captured him.


During those years in Oildale, the mid 1940s, I needed only to walk across the street to find a patch of virgin desert. Neighborhood kids called it simply "the vacant lot," less than an acre without houses or sidewalks. Not that we were desperate for desert then, since we could walk into its scorched skin a mere halfmile west, north, and east.


Despite the abundance of open land, . . . most kids relied on the vacant lot as their primary playground. Even with its bullheads and stinging insects, we played everything from football to kick-the-can on it. The lot actually resembled my father's head, bare in the middle but full of growth around the edges: weeds, stickers, cactuses, and a few bushes. We played our games on its sandy center, and conducted such sports as ant fights and lizard hunts.


That spring, when I discovered the lone horned toad near the back of the lot, had been rough on my family. Earlier, there had been quiet, unpleasant tension between Mom and Daddy. He was a silent man, little given to emotional displays. It was difficult for him to show affection, and I guess the openness of Mom's family made him uneasy. Daddy had no kin in California and rarely mentioned anyone in Texas. He couldn't seem to understand my mother's large, intimate family, their constant noisy concern for one another, and I think he was a little jealous of the time she gave everyone, maybe even me.


I heard her talking on the phone to my various aunts and uncles, usually in Spanish. Even though I couldn't understand — Daddy had warned her not to teach me that foreign tongue because it would hurt me in school, and she'd complied — I could sense the stress. I had been afraid they were going to divorce, since she only used Spanish to hide things from me. I'd confronted her with my suspicion, but she comforted me, saying, no, that was not the problem. They were merely deciding when it would be our turn to care for Grandma. I didn't really understand, although I was relieved.


I later learned that my great-grandmother — whom we simply called "Grandma" — had been moving from house to house within the family, trying to find a place she'd accept. She hated the city, and most of the aunts and uncles lived in Los Angeles. Our house in Oildale was much closer to the open country where she'd dwelled all her life. She had wanted to come to our place right away because she had raised my mother from a baby when my own grandmother died. But the old lady seemed unimpressed with Daddy, whom she called "ese gringo."


In truth, we had more room, and my dad made more money in the oil patch than almost anyone else in the family. Since my mother was the closest to Grandma, our place was the logical one for her, but Ese Gringo didn't see it that way, I guess, at least not at first. Finally, after much debate, he relented.


In any case, one windy afternoon, my Uncle Manuel and Aunt Toni drove up and deposited four-and-a-half feet of bewigged, bejeweled Spanish spitfire: a square, pale face topped by a tightly-curled black wig that hid a bald head — her hair having been lost to typhoid nearly sixty years before — her small white hands veined with rivers of blue. She walked with a prancing bounce that made her appear half her age, and she barked orders in Spanish from the moment she emerged from Manuel and Toni's car. Later, just before they left, I heard Uncle Manuel tell my dad, "Good luck, Charlie. That old lady's dynamite." Daddy only grunted.


She had been with us only two days when I tried to impress her with my horned toad. In fact, nothing I did seemed to impress her, and she referred to me as el malcriado, causing my mother to shake her head. Mom explained to me that Grandma was just old and lonely for Grandpa and uncomfortable in town. Mom told me that Grandma had lived over half a century in the country, away from people. She refused to accompany my mother on shopping trips, or anywhere else. She even refused to climb into a car, and I wondered how Uncle Manuel had managed to load her up in order to bring her to us.


She disliked sidewalks and roads, dancing across them when she had to, then appearing to wipe her feet on earth or grass. Things too civilized simply did not please her. A brother of hers had been killed in the great San Francisco earthquake and that had been the end of her tolerance of cities. Until my great-grandfather died, they lived on a small rancho near Arroyo Cantua, north of Coalinga. Grandpa, who had come north from Sonora as a youth to work as a vaquero, had bred horses and cattle, and cowboyed for other ranchers, scraping together enough of a living to raise eleven children.


As it turned out, I didn't really understand very much about Grandma at all. She was old, of course, yet in many ways my parents treated her as though she were younger than me, walking her to the bathroom at night and bringing her presents from the store. In other ways — drinking wine at dinner, for example — she was granted adult privileges. Even Daddy didn't drink wine except on special occasions. After Grandma moved in, though, he began to occasionally join her for a glass, sometimes even sitting with her on the porch for a pre-meal sip.


She held court on our front porch, often gazing toward the desert hills east of us or across the street at kids playing on the lot.


One afternoon I returned from school and saw Grandma perched on the porch as usual, so I started to walk around the house to avoid her sharp, mostly incomprehensible, tongue. She had already spotted me. "¡Venga aquí!" she ordered, and I understood.


I approached the porch and noticed that Grandma was vigorously chewing something. She held a small white bag in one hand. Saying "¿Qué deseas tomar?" she withdrew a large orange gumdrop from the bag and began slowly chewing it in her toothless mouth, smacking loudly as she did so. I stood below her for a moment trying to remember the word for candy. Then it came to me: "Dulce," I said.


Still chewing, Grandma replied, "¿Mande?"


Knowing she wanted a complete sentence, I again struggled, then came up with "Deseo dulce."


She measured me for a moment, before answering in nearly perfect English, "Oh, so you wan' some candy. Go to the store an' buy some."


I don't know if it was the shock of hearing her speak English for the first time, or the way she had denied me a piece of candy, but I suddenly felt tears warm my cheeks and I sprinted into the house and found Mom, who stood at the kitchen sink. "Grandma just talked English," I burst between light sobs.


"What's wrong?" she asked as she reached out to stroke my head.


"Grandma can talk English," I repeated.


"Of course she can," Mom answered. "What's wrong?"


I wasn't sure what was wrong, but after considering, I told Mom that Grandma had teased me. No sooner had I said that than the old woman appeared at the door and hiked her skirt. Attached to one of her petticoats by safety pins were several small tobacco sacks, the white cloth kind that closed with yellow drawstrings. She carefully unhooked one and opened it, withdrawing a dollar, then handed the money to me. "Para su dulce," she said. Then, to my mother, she asked, "Why does he bawl like a motherless calf?"


"It's nothing," Mother replied.


"Do not weep, little one," the old lady comforted me, "Jesus and the Virgin love you." She smiled and patted my head. To my mother she said as though just realizing it, "Your baby?"


Somehow that day changed everything. I wasn't afraid of my greatgrandmother any longer and, once I began spending time with her on the porch, I realized that my father had also begun directing increased attention to the old woman. Almost every evening Ese Gringo was sharing wine with Grandma. They talked out there, but I never did hear a real two-way conversation between them. Usually Grandma rattled on and Daddy nodded. She'd chuckle and pat his hand and he might grin, even grunt a word or two, before she'd begin talking again. Once I saw my mother standing by the front window watching them together, a smile playing across her face.


No more did I sneak around the house to avoid Grandma after school. Instead, she waited for me and discussed my efforts in class gravely, telling Mother that I was a bright boy, "muy inteligente," and that I should be sent to the nuns who would train me. I would make a fine priest. When Ese Gringo heard that, he smiled and said, "He'd make a fair-to-middlin' Holy Roller preacher, too." Even Mom had to chuckle, and my great-grandmother shook her finger at Ese gringo. "Oh you debil, Sharlie!" she cackled.


Frequently, I would accompany Grandma to the lot where she would explain that no fodder could grow there. Poor pasture or not, the lot was at least unpaved, and Grandma greeted even the tiniest new cactus or flowering weed with joy. "Look how beautiful," she would croon. "In all this ugliness, it lives." Oildale was my home and it didn't look especially ugly to me, so I could only grin and wonder.


Because she liked the lot and things that grew there, I showed her the horned toad when I captured it a second time. I was determined to keep it, although I did not discuss my plans with anyone. I also wanted to hear more about the bloody eyes, so I thrust the small animal nearly into her face one afternoon. She did not flinch. "Hola señor sangre de ojos ," she said with a mischievous grin. "¿Que tal?" It took me a moment to catch on.


"You were kidding before," I accused.


"Of course," she acknowledged, still grinning.


"But why?"


"Because the little beast belongs with his own kind in his own place, not in your pocket. Give him his freedom, my son."


I had other plans for the horned toad, but I was clever enough not to cross Grandma. "Yes, Ma'am," I replied. That night I placed the reptile in a flower bed cornered by a brick wall Ese Gringo had built the previous summer. It was a spot rich with insects for the toad to eat, and the little wall, only a foot high, must have seemed massive to so squat an animal.


Nonetheless, the next morning, when I searched for the horned toad it was gone. I had no time to explore the yard for it, so I trudged off to school, my belly troubled. How could it have escaped? Classes meant little to me that day. I thought only of my lost pet — I had changed his name to Juan, the same as my great-grandfather — and where I might find him.


I shortened my conversation with Grandma that afternoon so I could search for Juan. "What do you seek?" the old woman asked me as I poked through flower beds beneath the porch. "Praying mantises," I improvised, and she merely nodded, surveying me. But I had eyes only for my lost pet, and I continued pushing through branches and brushing aside leaves. No luck.


Finally, I gave in and turned toward the lot. I found my horned toad nearly across the street, crushed. It had been heading for the miniature desert and had almost made it when an automobile's tire had run over it. One notion immediately swept me: if I had left it on its lot, it would still be alive. I stood rooted there in the street, tears slicking my cheeks, and a car honked its horn as it passed, the driver shouting at me.


Grandma joined me, and stroked my back. "The poor little beast," was all she said, then she bent slowly and scooped up what remained of the horned toad and led me out of the street. "We must return him to his own place," she explained, and we trooped, my eyes still clouded, toward the back of the vacant lot. Carefully, I dug a hole with a piece of wood. Grandma placed Juan in it and covered him. We said an Our Father and a Hail Mary, then Grandma walked me back to the house. "Your little Juan is safe with God, my son," she comforted. We kept the horned toad's death a secret, and we visited his small grave frequently.


Grandma fell just before school ended and summer vacation began. As was her habit, she had walked alone to the vacant lot but this time, on her way back, she tripped over the curb and broke her hip. That following week, when Daddy brought her home from the hospital, she seemed to have shrunken. She sat hunched in a wheelchair on the porch, gazing with faded eyes toward the hills or at the lot, speaking rarely.

I was tugged from sleep on the night she died by voices drumming through the walls into darkness. I couldn't understand them but was immediately frightened by the uncommon sounds of words in the night. I struggled from bed and walked into the living room just as Daddy closed the front door and a car pulled away.


Mom was sobbing softly on the couch, and Daddy walked to her, stroked herhead, then noticed me. "Come here, son," he gently ordered.


I walked to him and, uncharacteristically, he put an arm around me. "What's wrong?" I asked, near tears myself. Mom looked up, but before she could speak, Daddy said, "Grandma died." Then he sighed heavily and stood there with his arms around his weeping wife and son.


The next day my Uncle Manuel and Uncle Arnulfo, plus Aunt Chintia, arrived and over food they discussed with my mother where Grandma should be interred. They argued that it would be too expensive to transport her body home and, besides, they could more easily visit her grave if she was buried in Bakersfield. "They have such a nice, manicured grounds at Greenlawn," Aunt Chintia pointed out. Just when it seemed they had agreed, I could remain silent no longer. "But Grandma has to go home," I burst. "She has to! It's the only thing she really wanted. We can't leave her in the city."


Uncle Arnulfo, who was on the edge, snapped to Mother that I belonged with the other children, not interrupting adult conversation. Mom quietly agreed, but I refused. My father walked into the room then. "What's wrong?" he asked.


"They're going to bury Grandma in Bakersfield, Daddy. Don't let'em, please."


"Well, son . . ."


"When my horny toad got killed and she helped me to bury it, she said we had to return him to his place."


"Your horny toad?" Mother asked.


"He got squished and me and Grandma buried him in the lot. She said we had to take him back to his place. Honest she did."


No one spoke for a moment, then my father, Ese Gringo, who stood against the sink, responded: "That's right . . ." He paused, then added, "We'll bury her." I saw a weary smile cross my mother's face. "If she wanted to go back to the ranch then that's where we have to take her," Daddy said.


I hugged him and he, right in front of everyone, hugged back.


No one argued. It seemed, suddenly, as though they had all wanted to do exactly what I had begged for. Grown-ups baffled me. Later that week the entire family, hundreds it seemed, gathered at the little Catholic church in Coalinga for mass, then drove out to Arroyo Cantua and buried Grandma next to Grandpa. She rests there today.


My mother, father, and I drove back to Oildale that afternoon across the scorching westside desert, through sand and tumbleweeds and heat shivers. Quiet and sad, we knew we had done our best. Mom, who usually sat next to the door in the front seat, snuggled close to Daddy, and I heard her whisper to him, "Thank you, Charlie," as she kissed his cheek.


Daddy squeezed her, hesitated as if to clear his throat, then answered, "When you're family, you take care of your own."



Source 2



  • Son muy toxicos they are very poisonous.
  • spanning four generations of California Great-Grandma is from the first generation of the narrator's family. Great-Grandma's daughter is from the second generation. The narrator's mother is part of the third generation, and the narrator is part of the fourth generation to live in California.
  • virgin (n.) pure; not yet used.
  • Emblemized v. represented; symbolized
  • kin (n.) kin (n.) family.
  • complied (v.) act in agreement with a request or command.
  • suspicion (n.) lack of trust or confidence; to believe to be guilty or false without proof.
  • ese gringo that American.
  • relented (v.) become less harsh or cruel; be more tender and merciful.
  • spitfire (n.) a fireball; to have a strong or fiery personality.
  • typhoid (adj.) having to do with the disease typhoid fever.
  • el malcriado (n.) the spoiled boy.
  • vaquero (n.). cowboy.
  • incomprehensible (adj.) impossible to understand.
  • ¡Venga aqui! Come here!
  • ¿Qué deseas tomar? What would you like to eat?
  • dulce candy
  • ¿Mande? What?
  • Deseo dulce I would like candy.
  • Para su dulce For your candy.
  • muy inteligente very intelligent.
  • fodder (n.) course food for horses and cattle; hay, cornstalks, etc.
  • Hola señor sangre de ojos Hello mister blood-from-the-eyes.
  • ¿Que tal? How are you?
  • praying mantises (n.) a type of insect.
  • improvised (v.) make up on the spur of the moment.
  • uncharacteristically (adj.) unusual; not typical.
  • interred (v.) into a grave or tomb; bury.
  • baffled (v.) bewildered







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