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Prep Work: Learning Standards

Standards

 

Virginia

 

 

 

Common Core

Argumentative

 

Common Core Standards

http://www.corestandards.org/ELA-Literacy/W/11-12/ (Adopted 2010)

 

Grades 11-12

 

ARGUMENTATIVE ESSAYS

 

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.W.11-12.1

Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence.

 

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.W.11-12.1.A

Introduce precise, knowledgeable claim(s), establish the significance of the claim(s), distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and create an organization that logically sequences claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence.

 

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.W.11-12.1.B

Develop claim(s) and counterclaims fairly and thoroughly, supplying the most relevant evidence for each while pointing out the strengths and limitations of both in a manner that anticipates the audience's knowledge level, concerns, values, and possible biases.

 

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.W.11-12.1.C

Use words, phrases, and clauses as well as varied syntax to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships between claim(s) and reasons, between reasons and evidence, and between claim(s) and counterclaims.

 

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.W.11-12.1.D

Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline in which they are writing.

 

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.W.11-12.1.E

Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented.

 

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.W.11-12.4

Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in standards 1-3 above.)

 

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.W.11-12.5

Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on addressing what is most significant for a specific purpose and audience. (Editing for conventions should demonstrate command of Language standards 1-3 up to and including grades 11-12 here.)

 

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.W.11-12.10

Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of tasks, purposes, and audiences.

 

Argumentative

ALASKA

https://education.alaska.gov/standards/  (Adopted 2012)

 

Grades 11-12    

 

Persuasive Essays

 

Text Types and Purposes

 

Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence.

 

a. Introduce precise, knowledgeable claim(s), establish the significance of the claim(s), distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and create an organization that logically sequences claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence.

b. Develop claim(s) and counterclaims fairly and thoroughly, supplying the most relevant evidence for each while pointing out the strengths and limitations of both in a manner that anticipates the audience’s knowledge level, concerns, values, and possible biases.

c. Use words, phrases, and clauses as well as varied syntax to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships between claim(s) and reasons, between reasons and evidence, and between claim(s) and counterclaims.

d. Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline in which they are writing.

e. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented.

 

Production and Distribution of Writing

 

Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style and features are appropriate to task, genre, purpose, and audience.

 

Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach. (Editing for conventions should demonstrate command of Language standards 1–3 up to and including grades 11-12.)

 

Range of Writing

 

Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of tasks, purposes, and audiences.

 

Arizona

Argumentative

ARIZONA

http://www.azed.gov/standards-practices/englishlanguageartsstandards/  (Adopted 2010)

 

Grades 11-12    

 

Persuasive Essays

 

Text Types and Purposes

 

  1. Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence.

 

  1. Introduce precise, knowledgeable claim(s), establish the significance of the claim(s), distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and create an organization that logically sequences claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence.

  2. Develop claim(s) and counterclaims fairly and thoroughly, supplying the most relevant evidence for each while pointing out the strengths and limitations of both in a manner that anticipates the audience’s knowledge level, concerns, values, and possible biases.

  3. Use words, phrases, and clauses as well as varied syntax to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships between claim(s) and reasons, between reasons and evidence, and between claim(s) and counterclaims.

  4. Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline in which they are writing.

  5. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented. (11-12.W.1)

 

Production and Distribution of Writing

 

  1. Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in standards 1–3 above. (11-12.W.4)

 

  1. Produce clear and coherent functional writing (e.g., formal letters, experiments, notes/messages, labels, timelines, graphs/tables, procedures, invitations, envelopes, maps, captions, diagrams) in which the development and organization are appropriate to the task, purpose, and audience. (AZ.11-12.W.4)

 

  1. Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on addressing what is most significant for a specific purpose and audience. (Editing for conventions should demonstrate command of Language standards 1–3 up to and including grades 11–12.) 
    (11-12.W.5)

 

Research to Build and Present Knowledge

 

  1. Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.

 

  1. Apply grades 11–12 Reading standards to literary nonfiction (e.g., "Delineate and evaluate the reasoning in seminal U.S. texts, including the application of constitutional principles and use of legal reasoning [e.g., in U.S. Supreme Court Case majority opinions and dissents] and the premises, purposes, and arguments in works of public advocacy [e.g.,The Federalist, presidential addresses]"). (11-12.W.9)

 

Range of Writing

 

  1. Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of tasks, purposes, and audiences. (11-12.W.10)

 

Indiana

Argumentative

 

INDIANA

http://www.doe.in.gov/standards/englishlanguage-arts  (Adopted 2014)

 

Grades 11-12    

 

Persuasive Essays

 

11-12.W.3.1

Write arguments in a variety of forms that –

 
  • Introduce precise, knowledgeable claim(s), establish the significance of the claim(s), distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and create an organization that logically sequences claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence.

 
  • Develop claim(s) and counterclaims fairly and thoroughly, supplying the most relevant evidence for each while pointing out the strengths and limitations of both in a manner that anticipates the audience’s knowledge level, concerns, values, and possible biases.

 
  • Use effective transitions as well as varied syntax to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships between claim(s) and reasons, between reasons and evidence, and between claim(s) and counterclaims.

 
  • Establish and maintain a consistent style and tone appropriate to purpose and audience.

 
  • Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented.  

 

 

11-12.W.4

Apply the writing process to –

 
  • Plan and develop; draft; revise using appropriate reference materials; rewrite; try a new approach, focusing on addressing what is most significant for a specific purpose and audience; and edit to produce and strengthen writing that is clear and coherent. 

 

Iowa

Argumentative

IOWA

https://iowacore.gov/iowa-core/subject/literacy  (Adopted 2012)

 

Grade 11-12

 

Persuasive Essays

 
  1. Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence.

 
  1. Introduce precise, knowledgeable claim(s), establish the significance of the claim(s), distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and create an organization that logically sequences claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence.

  2. Develop claim(s) and counterclaims fairly and thoroughly, supplying the most relevant evidence for each while pointing out the strengths and limitations of both in a manner that anticipates the audience’s knowledge level, concerns, values, and possible biases.

  3. Use words, phrases, and clauses as well as varied syntax to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships between claim(s) and reasons, between reasons and evidence, and between claim(s) and counterclaims.

  4. Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline in which they are writing.

  5. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented.

 

Production and Distribution of Writing

 

4. Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in standards 1-3 above)

 

5. Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on addressing what is most significant for a specific purpose and audience. (Editing for conventions should demonstrate command of Language standards 1-3 up to and including grades 11-12)

 

9. Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.

 

10. Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of tasks, purposes and audiences.

 

Nebraska

Argumentative

 

NEBRASKA

http://www.education.ne.gov/AcademicStandards/index.html (Adopted 2014)

 

Grades 11-12    

 

Persuasive Essays

 

LA 12.2 Writing: Students will learn and apply writing skills and strategies to communicate.

 

LA 12.2.1    Writing Process: Students will apply the writing process to plan, draft, revise, edit, and publish writing using correct spelling, grammar, punctuation, and other conventions of standard English appropriate for grade-level.

 

LA 12.2.1.a    Use multiple writing strategies recursively to investigate and generate ideas, organize information, guide writing, answer questions, and synthesize information.

 

LA 12.2.1.b    Generate a draft that interprets complex ideas, raises relevant questions, solves problems, or evaluates ideas through synthesis, analysis, reflection, and use of effective organizational patterns that are appropriate to the purpose and intended audience.

 

LA 12.2.1.d    Apply standard rules of grammar and paragraph formation, including parallel structure and subordination.

 

LA 12.2.1.e    Revise to improve and clarify writing through self-monitoring strategies and feedback from others.

 

LA 12.2.1.g    Adjust writing processes to persevere in short and long-term writing tasks of increasing length and complexity.

 

LA 12.2.1.h    Proofread and edit writing recursively for format and conventions of standard English (e.g., spelling, capitalization, grammar, punctuation, syntax, semantics).

 

LA 12.2.1.i    Display academic honesty and integrity by avoiding plagiarism and/or overreliance on any one source and by following a standard format for citation.

 

LA 12.2.2    Writing Modes: Students will write in multiple modes for a variety of purposes and audiences across disciplines.

 

LA 12.2.2.a    Communicate information and ideas effectively in analytic, argumentative, descriptive, informative, narrative, poetic, persuasive, and reflective modes to multiple audiences using a variety of media and formats.

 

LA 12.2.2.b    Provide evidence from literary or informational text to support analysis, reflection, and research.

 

LA 12.2.2.d    Use precise word choice and domain-specific vocabulary to write in a variety of modes.

 

Oklahoma

Argumentative

11th Grade

OKLAHOMA

http://ok.gov/sde/oklahoma-academic-standards#OC3ELA  (Adopted 2014)

 

Grade 11    

 

Persuasive Essays

 

Standard 1: Writing Process. The student will use the writing process to write coherently.

 

1. Students are expected to:

a. use a variety of prewriting strategies such as brainstorming, free writing, outlining, discussing, clustering, webbing, using graphic organizers, notes logs, or reading to generate ideas, develop voice, gather information, and plan.

b. develop main idea/thesis. Evaluate results of prewriting activities and select appropriate topic.

c. evaluate audience and purpose:

i. consider specific purposes for writing (e.g., to reflect, inform, explain, persuade, make social and/or political statements, or share an experience or emotion).

ii. evaluate possible modes/genres and select one, remembering that the choice of the mode/genre will guide the treatment of the topic, the development of a stance toward the audience, and the organizational structure.

d. develop multiple drafts, individually and collaboratively, to categorize ideas, organize them into paragraphs, and blend paragraphs into larger text.

e. revise drafts for organization, content and style.

f.  edit for specific purposes such as to ensure standard usage, varied sentence structure, appropriate word choice, mechanics, and spelling.

g. refine selected pieces to publish for general and specific audiences.

 

2. Use elaboration to develop an idea:

a. draft a text with a clear, controlling idea or thesis.

b. develop a coherent progression of ideas applying organizational strategies such as spatial, chronological, order of importance, compare/contrast, logical order, cause/effect, or classification/division.

c. apply different methods of support, such as facts, reasons, examples, sensory details, anecdotes, paraphrases, quotes, reflections, and dialogue.

d. apply a consistent and appropriate point of view, establish a credible voice, and create a suitable tone.

e. understand and apply formal and informal diction for a desired effect.

 

3. Demonstrate organization, unity, and coherence during revision process:

a. read the draft from the intended audience’s point of view to evaluate clarity of purpose.

b. evaluate whether ideas and organizational patterns are clear and support the overall purpose of the piece.

c. evaluate whether topic sentences, transitions within and between paragraphs, overall sequencing, and the progression of ideas is clear, focused, smooth, and coherent.

d. evaluate whether ideas are adequately developed.

e. apply a consistent and appropriate point of view.

f. understand and apply formal and informal diction.

 

4. Editing/proofreading and evaluating:

a. apply Standard English usage and correct spelling in text.

b. employs specified editing/proofreading strategies and consults resources (e.g., handbooks and style manuals, spell checks, personal spelling lists, dictionaries, thesauruses, or style sheets) to correct errors in spelling, capitalization, and punctuation, including punctuation of quotations.

c. use a specified format for in-text citation of source materials for bibliographies and for lists of works cited, and check against original source for accuracy.

d. demonstrate an understanding of the ethics of writing by creating a document free from plagiarism.

 

5. Use point of view, characterization, style, and related elements for specific rhetorical (communication) and aesthetic (artistic) purposes.

 

6. Structure ideas and arguments in a sustained and persuasive way and support them with precise and relevant examples.

 

7. Evaluate own writing and others' writing to highlight the individual voice, improve sentence variety and style, and enhance subtlety of meaning and tone in ways that are consistent with the purpose, audience, and form of writing.

 

Standard 2: Modes and Forms of writing. The student will write for a variety of purposes and audiences using creative, narrative, descriptive, expository, persuasive, and reflective modes.

 

At Grade 11, continue to combine the rhetorical strategies of narration, exposition, persuasion, reflection, and description to produce text of at least 1,500 words. Refine reflective compositions and become familiar with forms of job applications and resumes. Deliver multimedia presentations on varied topics. Demonstrate a command of Standard English and the research, organization, and drafting strategies outlined in the writing process. Writing demonstrates an awareness of the audience [intended reader] and purpose for writing.

 

3. Compose persuasive compositions that:

a. include a well-defined thesis that makes a clear and knowledgeable appeal in a sustained and effective fashion.

b. use exposition, narration, description, and argumentation to support the main argument.

c. use specific rhetorical devices to support assertions such as personal anecdote, case study, analogy, or logical, emotional, and/or ethical appeal.

d. clarify and defend positions with precise and relevant evidence, including facts, expert opinions, quotations, expressions of commonly accepted beliefs, and logical reasoning.

e. effectively address reader’s concerns, counterclaims, and individual or group biases.

 

7. Write for different purposes and to a specific audience or person, adjusting tone and style as necessary to make writing interesting. Continue to produce other writing forms introduced in earlier grades.

 

9. Use appropriate essay test-taking and time-writing strategies that:

a. budget time for prewriting, drafting, revising, and editing.

b. prioritize question/prompt.

c. identify common directives from the prompt (identify common verbs: explain, compare, evaluate, define, and develop, etc.).

d. analyze the question/prompt and determine the appropriate mode of writing, audience, and tone.

e. apply appropriate organizational methods to thoroughly address the prompt.

f. evaluate work using editing checklist or rubric if available.

12th Grade

OKLAHOMA

http://ok.gov/sde/oklahoma-academic-standards#OC3ELA  (Adopted 2014)

 

Grade 12    

 

Persuasive Essays

 

Standard 1: Writing Process - The student will use the writing process to write coherently.

 

1. Use a writing process to develop and refine composition skills. Students are expected to:

a. use a variety of prewriting strategies such as brainstorming, outlining, free writing, discussing, clustering, webbing, using graphic organizers, notes logs, interviews, or reading to generate ideas, develop voice, gather information, and plan.

b. develop main idea/thesis.

c. evaluate results of prewriting activities and select appropriate topic.

d. evaluate audience and purpose for writing:

i. consider specific purposes for writing (e.g., to reflect, inform, explain, persuade, make a social and/or political statement, or share an experience or emotion).

ii. evaluate the writing task, considering the assumptions, values, and background knowledge of the intended audience.

e. evaluate possible modes/genres and select one, remembering that the choice of the mode/genre will guide the treatment of the topic, the development of a stance toward the audience, and the organizational structure.

f. develop multiple drafts, individually and collaboratively, to categorize ideas organize them into paragraphs, and blend paragraphs into larger text.

g. revise drafts for organization, content, and style.

h. edit/proofread for specific purposes such as to ensure standard usage, varied sentence structure, appropriate word choice, mechanics, and spelling.

i. refine selected pieces to publish for general and specific audiences.

 

2. Use elaboration to develop an idea:

a. draft a text with a clear, controlling idea or thesis

b. develop a coherent progression of ideas applying organizational strategies such as spatial, chronological, order of importance, compare/contrast, logical order, cause/effect, or classification/division.

c. apply different methods of support, such as facts, reasons, examples, sensory details, anecdotes, paraphrases, quotes, reflections, and dialogue.

d. apply a consistent and appropriate point of view, establish a credible voice, and create a suitable tone.

e. understand and apply formal and informal diction for a desired effect.

 

3. Demonstrate organization, unity and coherence during revision process:

a. read the draft from the intended audience’s point of view to evaluate clarity of purpose.

b. evaluate whether ideas and organizational patterns are clear and support the overall purpose of the piece.

c. evaluate whether topic sentences, transitions within and between paragraphs, overall sequencing, and the progression of ideas is clear, focused, smooth, and coherent.

d. evaluate whether ideas are adequately developed.

e. apply a consistent and appropriate point of view.

f. understand and apply formal and informal diction.

 

4. Editing/proofreading and evaluating:

a. apply Standard English usage and correct spelling in text.

b. employs specified editing/proofreading strategies and consults resources (e.g., handbooks and style manuals, spell checks, personal spelling lists, dictionaries, thesauruses, or style sheets) to correct errors in spelling, capitalization, and punctuation, including punctuation of quotations.

c. use a specified format for in-text citation of source materials for bibliographies and for lists of works cited, and check against original source for accuracy.

d. demonstrate an understanding of the ethics of writing by creating a document free from plagiarism.

 

5. Use point of view, characterization, style, and related elements for specific rhetorical (communication) and aesthetic (artistic) purposes.

 

6. Structure ideas and arguments in a sustained and persuasive way and support them with precise and relevant examples.

 

7. Evaluate own and others' writing to highlight the individual voice, improve sentence variety and style, and enhance subtlety of meaning and tone in ways that are consistent with the purpose, audience, and form of writing.

 

8. Further develop unique writing style and voice, improve sentence variety, and enhance subtlety of meaning and tone in ways that are consistent with the purpose, audience, and form of writing.

 

Standard 2: Modes and Forms of Writing. The student will write for a variety of purposes and audiences using creative, narrative, descriptive, expository, persuasive, and reflective modes.

 

At Grade 12, continue to combine the rhetorical strategies of narration, exposition, persuasion, and description: to produce text, reflective compositions, historical investigation reports, and deliver multimedia presentations. The writing demonstrates a command of Standard English and the research, organization, and drafting strategies outlined in the writing process. Writing demonstrates an awareness of the audience (intended reader) and purpose for writing.

 

3.  Compose persuasive compositions that:

a. include a well-defined thesis that makes a clear and knowledgeable appeal in a sustained and effective fashion.

b. use exposition, narration, description, and argumentation to support the main argument.

c. use specific rhetorical devices to support assertions such as personal anecdote, case study, analogy, or logical, emotional, and/or ethical appeal.

d. clarify and defend positions with precise and relevant evidence, including facts, expert opinions, quotations, expressions of commonly accepted beliefs, and logical reasoning.

e. effectively address reader’s concerns, counterclaims, and individual or group biases.

 

7. Write for different purposes and to a specific audience or person, adjusting tone and style as necessary to make writing interesting. Continue to produce other forms of writing introduced in earlier grades.

 

9. Use appropriate essay test-taking and time writing strategies that:

a. budget time for prewriting, drafting, revising, and editing.

b. prioritize the question/prompt.

c. identify common directives from the question/prompt (identify common verbs: explain, compare, evaluate, define, and develop, etc.).

d. analyze the question/prompt and determine the appropriate mode of writing, audience, and tone.

e. apply appropriate organizational methods to thoroughly address the question/prompt.

f. evaluate work using editing checklist or rubric, if available.

 

Pennsylvania

Argumentative

 

PENNSYLVANIA CORE STANDARDS

http://www.pdesas.org/standard/PACore (Amended 2014)

 

Grades 11-12

 

Persuasive Essays

 

1.4  Writing - Students write for different purposes and audiences. Students write clear and focused text to convey a well-defined perspective and appropriate content.

 

CC.1.4.11–12.G

Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics.

 

CC.1.4.11–12.H

Write with a sharp, distinct focus identifying topic, task, and audience.

Introduce the precise, knowledgeable claim.

 

CC.1.4.11–12.I

Distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims; develop claim(s) and counterclaims fairly and thoroughly, supplying the most relevant evidence for each while pointing out the strengths and limitations of both in a manner that anticipates the audience’s knowledge level, concerns, values, and possible biases.

 

CC.1.4.11–12.J

Create organization that logically sequences claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence; use words, phrases, and clauses as well as varied syntax to link the major sections of the text to create cohesion and clarify the relationships between claim(s) and reasons, between reasons and evidence, and between claim(s) and counterclaims; provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented.

 

CC.1.4.11–12.K

Write with an awareness of the stylistic aspects of composition

  • Use precise language, domain-specific vocabulary, and techniques such as metaphor, simile, and analogy to manage the complexity of the topic.

  • Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms of the discipline in which they are writing.

 

CC.1.4.11–12.L

Demonstrate a grade-appropriate command of the conventions of standard English grammar, usage, capitalization, punctuation, and spelling.

 

South Carolina

Argumentative

11th Grade

SOUTH CAROLINA

http://ed.sc.gov/instruction/standards-learning/english-language-arts/standards/  (Adopted 2015)

 

English 3    

 

Persuasive Essays

 

Fundamentals of Writing

Employ a recursive writing process that includes planning, drafting, revising, editing, rewriting, publishing, and reflecting.

Interact and collaborate with peers and adults to develop and strengthen writing.

Produce writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, discipline, and audience.

Use clear and coherent written language to accomplish a purpose such as learning, enjoyment, argument, and the exchange of information.

Monitor progress throughout the writing process and adjust strategies as needed from independence to collaboration within a writing community.

 

Standard 1: Write arguments to support claims with clear reasons and relevant evidence.

 

1.1 Write arguments that:

 

a. introduce a clearly articulated and well-informed claim, establish the significance of the claim and differentiate between the claim and counterclaims;

b. use relevant information from multiple print and multimedia sources;

c. assess the credibility and accuracy of each source;

d. create an organizational structure that logically sequences claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, warrants, and evidence;

e. develop claim and counterclaims fairly and thoroughly, supplying the most relevant evidence for each while pointing out the strengths and limitations of both in a manner that anticipates the audience’s knowledge level, concerns, values, and possible biases;

f. use words, phrases, and clauses as well as varied syntax to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships between claims and reasons, between reasons and evidence, and between claims and counterclaims;

g. establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline;

h. develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting;

i. quote or paraphrase the data and conclusions of others while avoiding plagiarism

j. avoid logical fallacies and demonstrate an understanding of objectivity and subjectivity;

k. provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented;

l. include a call to action.

 

Standard 6: Write independently, legibly, and routinely for a variety of tasks, purposes, and audiences over short and extended time frames.

 

6.1 Write routinely and persevere in writing tasks over short and extended time frames, for a range of domain-specific tasks, and for a variety of purposes and audiences.

12th Grade

SOUTH CAROLINA

http://ed.sc.gov/instruction/standards-learning/english-language-arts/standards/  (Adopted 2015)

 

English 4    

 

Persuasive Essays

 

Fundamentals of Writing

Employ a recursive writing process that includes planning, drafting, revising, editing, rewriting, publishing, and reflecting.

Interact and collaborate with peers and adults to develop and strengthen writing.

Produce writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, discipline, and audience.

Use clear and coherent written language to accomplish a purpose such as learning, enjoyment, argument, and the exchange of information.

Monitor progress throughout the writing process and adjust strategies as needed from independence to collaboration within a writing community.

 

Standard 1: Write arguments to support claims with clear reasons and relevant evidence.

 

1.1 Write arguments that:

 

a. introduce a clearly articulated and well-informed claim, establish the significance of the claim and differentiate between the claim and counterclaims;

b. use relevant information from multiple print and multimedia sources;

c. assess the credibility and accuracy of each source;

d. create an organizational structure that logically sequences claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, warrants, and evidence;

e. develop claim and counterclaims fairly and thoroughly, supplying the most relevant evidence for each while pointing out the strengths and limitations of both in a manner that anticipates the audience’s knowledge level, concerns, values, and possible biases;

f. use words, phrases, and clauses as well as varied syntax to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships between claims and reasons, between reasons and evidence, and between claims and counterclaims;

g. establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline;

h. develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting;

i.  quote or paraphrase the data and conclusions of others while avoiding plagiarism

j.  avoid logical fallacies and demonstrate an understanding of objectivity and subjectivity;

k. provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented;

l. include a call to action.

 

Standard 6: Write independently, legibly, and routinely for a variety of tasks, purposes, and audiences over short and extended time frames.

 

6.1 Write routinely and persevere in writing tasks over short and extended time frames, for a range of domain-specific tasks, and for a variety of purposes and audiences.


Texas

Argumentative

11th Grade

TEXAS ESSENTIAL KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS (TEKS)

http://tea.texas.gov/curriculum/teks/ (Amended 2010)

 

High School – English III

 

Persuasive Essays

 

(13)  Writing/Writing Process. Students use elements of the writing process (planning, drafting, revising, editing, and publishing) to compose text. Students are expected to:

(A)  plan a first draft by selecting the correct genre for conveying the intended meaning to multiple audiences, determining appropriate topics through a range of strategies (e.g., discussion, background reading, personal interests, interviews), and developing a thesis or controlling idea;

(B)  structure ideas in a sustained and persuasive way (e.g., using outlines, note taking, graphic organizers, lists) and develop drafts in timed and open-ended situations that include transitions and rhetorical devices to convey meaning;

(C)  revise drafts to clarify meaning and achieve specific rhetorical purposes, consistency of tone, and logical organization by rearranging the words, sentences, and paragraphs to employ tropes (e.g., metaphors, similes, analogies, hyperbole, understatement, rhetorical questions, irony), schemes (e.g., parallelism, antithesis, inverted word order, repetition, reversed structures), and by adding transitional words and phrases;

(D)  edit drafts for grammar, mechanics, and spelling; and

(E)  revise final draft in response to feedback from peers and teacher and publish written work for appropriate audiences.

(16)  Writing/Persuasive Texts. Students write persuasive texts to influence the attitudes or actions of a specific audience on specific issues. Students are expected to write an argumentative essay (e.g., evaluative essays, proposals) to the appropriate audience that includes:

(A)  a clear thesis or position based on logical reasons supported by precise and relevant evidence, including facts, expert opinions, quotations, and/or expressions of commonly accepted beliefs;

(B)  accurate and honest representation of divergent views (i.e., in the author's own words and not out of context);

(C)  an organizing structure appropriate to the purpose, audience, and context;

(D)  information on the complete range of relevant perspectives;

(E)  demonstrated consideration of the validity and reliability of all primary and secondary sources used; and

(F)  language attentively crafted to move a disinterested or opposed audience, using specific rhetorical devices to back up assertions (e.g., appeals to logic, emotions, ethical beliefs).

12th Grade

TEXAS ESSENTIAL KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS (TEKS)

http://tea.texas.gov/curriculum/teks/ (Amended 2010)

 

High School – English IV

 

Persuasive Essays

 

(13)  Writing/Writing Process. Students use elements of the writing process (planning, drafting, revising, editing, and publishing) to compose text. Students are expected to:

(A)  plan a first draft by selecting the correct genre for conveying the intended meaning to multiple audiences, determining appropriate topics through a range of strategies (e.g., discussion, background reading, personal interests, interviews), and developing a thesis or controlling idea;

(B)  structure ideas in a sustained and persuasive way (e.g., using outlines, note taking, graphic organizers, lists) and develop drafts in timed and open-ended situations that include transitions and the rhetorical devices to convey meaning;

(C)  revise drafts to clarify meaning and achieve specific rhetorical purposes, consistency of tone, and logical organization by rearranging the words, sentences, and paragraphs to employ tropes (e.g., metaphors, similes, analogies, hyperbole, understatement, rhetorical questions, irony), schemes (e.g., parallelism, antithesis, inverted word order, repetition, reversed structures), and by adding transitional words and phrases;

(D)  edit drafts for grammar, mechanics, and spelling; and

(E)  revise final draft in response to feedback from peers and teacher and publish written work for appropriate audiences.

(16)  Writing/Persuasive Texts. Students write persuasive texts to influence the attitudes or actions of a specific audience on specific issues. Students are expected to write an argumentative essay (e.g., evaluative essays, proposals) to the appropriate audience that includes:

(A)  a clear thesis or position based on logical reasons with various forms of support (e.g., hard evidence, reason, common sense, cultural assumptions);

(B)  accurate and honest representation of divergent views (i.e., in the author's own words and not out of context);

(C)  an organizing structure appropriate to the purpose, audience, and context;

(D)  information on the complete range of relevant perspectives;

(E)  demonstrated consideration of the validity and reliability of all primary and secondary sources used;

(F)  language attentively crafted to move a disinterested or opposed audience, using specific rhetorical devices to back up assertions (e.g., appeals to logic, emotions, ethical beliefs); and

(G)  an awareness and anticipation of audience response that is reflected in different levels of formality, style, and tone.


 

Virginia

Argumentative

 

11th Grade

VIRGINIA ELA STANDARDS AND SKILLS

http://www.doe.virginia.gov (Adopted 2010)

 

Grade 11

 

Persuasive Essays

 

11.6    The student will write in a variety of forms, with an emphasis on persuasion.

 

a)    Generate, gather, plan, and organize ideas for writing to address a specific audience and purpose.

b)    Produce arguments in writing that develop a thesis that demonstrates knowledgeable judgments, addresses counterclaims, and     provides effective conclusions.

c)    Organize ideas in a sustained and logical manner.

d)    Clarify and defend position with precise and relevant evidence elaborating ideas clearly and accurately.

e)    Adapt content, vocabulary, voice, and tone to audience, purpose, and situation.

f)    Revise writing for clarity of content, accuracy and depth of information.

g)    Use computer technology to plan, draft, revise, edit, and publish writing.

h)    Write and revise correspondence to a standard acceptable both in the workplace and in postsecondary education.

 

To be successful with this standard, students are expected to:

  • apply a variety of planning strategies to generate and organize ideas.

  • present a thesis that focuses on the problem or argument to be solved.

  • anticipate and address the counterevidence, counterclaims, and counterarguments.  

  • use effective rhetorical appeals, to establish credibility and persuade intended audience.

  • refine the thesis by considering whether the  claim is  relevant, interesting, logical, and meaningful.

  • understand a variety of organizational patterns.

  • use appropriate and varied transitions to link sentences and paragraphs.

  • elaborate ideas clearly and accurately.

  • show how evidence supports each main point of the argument and justify why the evidence credibly supports the claims.  

  • introduce claim(s), acknowledge and distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims.

  • organize the reasons and evidence logically.

  • use specific revision strategies and adapt content, vocabulary, voice, and tone to audience, purpose, and situation.

  • select an appropriate audience by analyzing assumptions, values, and background knowledge.

  • develop the topic thoroughly by selecting facts, details, quotations, and

appropriate examples for the audience and purpose.

  • use MLA (Modern Language Association) or APA (American Psychological Association) style for formatting rules and documentation.

 

12th Grade

VIRGINIA ELA STANDARDS AND SKILLS

http://www.doe.virginia.gov (Adopted 2010)

 

Grade 12

 

Informative Essays

 

12.6    The student will develop expository and informational, analyses, and persuasive/argumentative writings.

 

a)    Generate, gather, and organize ideas for writing to address a specific audience and purpose.

b)    Produce arguments in writing that develop a thesis to demonstrate knowledgeable judgments, address counterclaims, and provide         effective conclusions.

c)    Clarify and defend a position with precise and relevant evidence.

d)    Adapt content, vocabulary, voice, and tone to audience, purpose, and situation.

e)    Use a variety of rhetorical strategies to accomplish a specific purpose.

f)    Create arguments free of errors in logic and externally supported.

g)    Revise writing for clarity of content, depth of information and technique of presentation.

h)    Use computer technology to plan, draft, revise, edit, and publish writing.

 

To be successful with this standard, students are expected to:

  • develop expository writings that:

    • explain their ideas through a clear general statement of the writer’s point (thesis);
    • use specific evidence and illustrations; and
    • provide concise and accurate information.
  • develop analytical essays that do one or more of the following:

    • examine a process;
    • make a comparison;
    • propose solutions;
    • classify;
    • define;
    • show cause and effect;
    • illustrate problems; and
    • evaluate.
  • use a range of strategies to elaborate and persuade, such as:

    • descriptions;
    • anecdotes;
    • case studies,
    • analogies; and
    • illustrations.
  • provide a clear and effective conclusion.

  • develop a thesis that demonstrates clear and knowledgeable judgments.

  • clarify and defend positions with precise and relevant evidence, including facts, expert opinions, quotations and/logical reasoning.

  • strategically focus paragraphs by using a variety of techniques.

  • use transition words and phrases to signal progression of ideas within and between paragraphs, and use appropriate words and phrases to signal organizational patterns (e.g., description, question-answer, compare-contrast, problem-solution, cause and effect). 

  • use words, phrases, and clauses to link the major sections of the text.

  • create cohesion, and clarify the relationships between claim(s) and reasons, between reasons and evidence, and between claim(s) and counterclaims.

  • elaborate for clarity and accuracy developing the topic fully with significant and relevant facts, extended definitions, concrete details, and important quotations.

  • develop ideas in a logical sequence.

  • establish and maintain a style and tone.

  • apply persuasive rhetorical devices and techniques including rhetorical questioning, parallel structuring, metaphor, imagery, figures of speech, alliterative expressions, etc., when appropriate.

  • recognize and avoid common logical fallacies or false premises.

  • revise writing to provide depth of information and to adhere to presentation format.

  • use computer technology as available to edit writing before submitting the final copy.

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