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Censorship in the Libraries: Learning Standards

Standards

Virginia

9th Grade    10th Grade    11th Grade    12th Grade

 

 

Common Core

Argumentative

Edit section
9th-10th Grades

Common Core Standards

http://www.corestandards.org/ELA-Literacy/W/9-10/ (Adopted 2010)

 

Grades 9-10

 

PERSUASIVE ESSAYS

 

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.W.9-10.1

Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence.

 

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.W.9-10.1.A

Introduce precise claim(s), distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and create an organization that establishes clear relationships among claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence.

 

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.W.9-10.1.B

Develop claim(s) and counterclaims fairly, supplying evidence for each while pointing out the strengths and limitations of both in a manner that anticipates the audience's knowledge level and concerns.

 

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.W.9-10.1.C

Use words, phrases, and clauses to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships between claim(s) and reasons, between reasons and evidence, and between claim(s) and counterclaims.

 

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.W.9-10.1.D

Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline in which they are writing.

 

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.W.9-10.1.E

Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented.

 

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.W.9-10.4

Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in standards 1-3 above.)

 

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.W.9-10.5

Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on addressing what is most significant for a specific purpose and audience. (Editing for conventions should demonstrate command of Language standards 1-3 up to and including grades 9-10 here.)

 

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.W.9-10.10

Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of tasks, purposes, and audiences.

 

11th-12th Grades

 

Common Core Standards

http://www.corestandards.org/ELA-Literacy/W/11-12/ (Adopted 2010)

 

Grades 11-12

 

PERSUASIVE ESSAYS

 

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.W.11-12.1

Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence.

 

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.W.11-12.1.A

Introduce precise, knowledgeable claim(s), establish the significance of the claim(s), distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and create an organization that logically sequences claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence.

 

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.W.11-12.1.B

Develop claim(s) and counterclaims fairly and thoroughly, supplying the most relevant evidence for each while pointing out the strengths and limitations of both in a manner that anticipates the audience's knowledge level, concerns, values, and possible biases.

 

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.W.11-12.1.C

Use words, phrases, and clauses as well as varied syntax to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships between claim(s) and reasons, between reasons and evidence, and between claim(s) and counterclaims.

 

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.W.11-12.1.D

Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline in which they are writing.

 

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.W.11-12.1.E

Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented.

 

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.W.11-12.4

Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in standards 1-3 above.)

 

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.W.11-12.5

Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on addressing what is most significant for a specific purpose and audience. (Editing for conventions should demonstrate command of Language standards 1-3 up to and including grades 11-12 here.)

 

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.W.11-12.10

Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of tasks, purposes, and audiences.

 

 

Alaska

Argumentative

Edit section
9th-10th Grades

ALASKA

https://education.alaska.gov/standards/  (Adopted 2012)

 

Grades 9-10    

 

Persuasive Essays

 

Text Types and Purposes

 

Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence.

 

a. Introduce precise claim(s), distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and create an organization that establishes clear relationships among claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence.

b. Develop claim(s) and counterclaims fairly, supplying evidence for each while pointing out the strengths and limitations of both in a manner that anticipates the audience’s knowledge level and concerns.

c. Use words, phrases, and clauses to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships between claim(s) and reasons, between reasons and evidence, and between claim(s) and counterclaims.

d. Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline in which they are writing.

e. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented.

 

Production and Distribution of Writing

 

Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style and features are appropriate to task, genre, purpose, and audience.

 

Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach. (Editing for conventions should demonstrate command of Language standards 1–3 up to and including grades 9-10.)

 

Range of Writing

 

Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of tasks, purposes, and audiences.

 

11th-12th Grades

 

ALASKA

https://education.alaska.gov/standards/  (Adopted 2012)

 

Grades 11-12    

 

Persuasive Essays

 

Text Types and Purposes

 

Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence.

 

a. Introduce precise, knowledgeable claim(s), establish the significance of the claim(s), distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and create an organization that logically sequences claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence.

b. Develop claim(s) and counterclaims fairly and thoroughly, supplying the most relevant evidence for each while pointing out the strengths and limitations of both in a manner that anticipates the audience’s knowledge level, concerns, values, and possible biases.

c. Use words, phrases, and clauses as well as varied syntax to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships between claim(s) and reasons, between reasons and evidence, and between claim(s) and counterclaims.

d. Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline in which they are writing.

e. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented.

 

Production and Distribution of Writing

 

Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style and features are appropriate to task, genre, purpose, and audience.

 

Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach. (Editing for conventions should demonstrate command of Language standards 1–3 up to and including grades 11-12.)

 

Range of Writing

 

Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of tasks, purposes, and audiences.

 

 

Arizona

Argumentative

9th-10th Grade

ARIZONA

http://www.azed.gov/standards-practices/englishlanguageartsstandards/  (Adopted 2010)

 

Grades 9-10    

 

Persuasive Essays

 

Text Types and Purposes

 

  1. Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence.

 

  1. Introduce precise claim(s), distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and create an organization that establishes clear relationships among claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence.

  2. Develop claim(s) and counterclaims fairly, supplying evidence for each while pointing out the strengths and limitations of both in a manner that anticipates the audience’s knowledge level and concerns.

  3. Use words, phrases, and clauses to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships between claim(s) and reasons, between reasons and evidence, and between claim(s) and counterclaims.

  4. Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline in which they are writing.

  5. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented. (9-10.W.1)

 

Production and Distribution of Writing

 

  1. Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in standards 1–3 above. (9-10.W.4)

 

  1. Produce clear and coherent functional writing (e.g., formal letters, experiments, notes/messages, labels, timelines, graphs/tables, procedures, invitations, envelopes, maps, captions, diagrams) in which the development and organization are appropriate to the task, purpose, and audience. (AZ. 9-10.W.4)

 

  1. Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on addressing what is most significant for a specific purpose and audience. (Editing for conventions should demonstrate command of Language standards 1–3 up to and including grades 9–10.) (9-10.W.5)

 

Research to Build and Present Knowledge

 

  1. Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.

 

  1. Apply grades 9–10 Reading standards to literary nonfiction (e.g., "Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing whether the reasoning is valid and the evidence is relevant and sufficient; identify false statements and fallacious reasoning"). (9-10.W.9)

 

Range of Writing

 

  1. Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of tasks, purposes, and audiences. (9-10.W.10)

 

 

11th-12th Grades

 

ARIZONA

http://www.azed.gov/standards-practices/englishlanguageartsstandards/  (Adopted 2010)

 

Grades 11-12    

 

Persuasive Essays

 

Text Types and Purposes

 

  1. Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence.

 

  1. Introduce precise, knowledgeable claim(s), establish the significance of the claim(s), distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and create an organization that logically sequences claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence.

  2. Develop claim(s) and counterclaims fairly and thoroughly, supplying the most relevant evidence for each while pointing out the strengths and limitations of both in a manner that anticipates the audience’s knowledge level, concerns, values, and possible biases.

  3. Use words, phrases, and clauses as well as varied syntax to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships between claim(s) and reasons, between reasons and evidence, and between claim(s) and counterclaims.

  4. Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline in which they are writing.

  5. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented. (11-12.W.1)

 

Production and Distribution of Writing

 

  1. Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in standards 1–3 above. (11-12.W.4)

 

  1. Produce clear and coherent functional writing (e.g., formal letters, experiments, notes/messages, labels, timelines, graphs/tables, procedures, invitations, envelopes, maps, captions, diagrams) in which the development and organization are appropriate to the task, purpose, and audience. (AZ.11-12.W.4)

 

  1. Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on addressing what is most significant for a specific purpose and audience. (Editing for conventions should demonstrate command of Language standards 1–3 up to and including grades 11–12.) 
    (11-12.W.5)

 

Research to Build and Present Knowledge

 

  1. Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.

 

  1. Apply grades 11–12 Reading standards to literary nonfiction (e.g., "Delineate and evaluate the reasoning in seminal U.S. texts, including the application of constitutional principles and use of legal reasoning [e.g., in U.S. Supreme Court Case majority opinions and dissents] and the premises, purposes, and arguments in works of public advocacy [e.g.,The Federalist, presidential addresses]"). (11-12.W.9)

 

Range of Writing

 

  1. Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of tasks, purposes, and audiences. (11-12.W.10)

 

 

Indiana

Argumentative

9th-10th Grades

INDIANA

http://www.doe.in.gov/standards/englishlanguage-arts  (Adopted 2014)

 

Grades 9-10    

 

Persuasive Essays

 

9-10.W.3.1

Write arguments in a variety of forms that –

 

● Introduce precise claim(s), distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and create an organization that establishes clear relationships among claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence.

 

● Develop claim(s) and counterclaims fairly, supplying evidence for each while pointing out the strengths and limitations of both in a manner that anticipates the audience’s knowledge level and concerns.

 

● Use effective transitions to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships between claim(s) and reasons, between reasons and evidence, and between claim(s) and counterclaims.

 

● Establish and maintain a consistent style and tone appropriate to purpose and audience.

 

● Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented.  

 

9-10.W.4

Apply the writing process to –

 

● Plan and develop; draft; revise using appropriate reference materials; rewrite; try a new approach, focusing on addressing what is most significant for a specific purpose and audience; and edit to produce and strengthen writing that is clear and coherent.

 

 

11th-12th Grades

INDIANA

http://www.doe.in.gov/standards/englishlanguage-arts  (Adopted 2014)

 

Grades 11-12    

 

Persuasive Essays

 

11-12.W.3.1

Write arguments in a variety of forms that –

 
  • Introduce precise, knowledgeable claim(s), establish the significance of the claim(s), distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and create an organization that logically sequences claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence.

 
  • Develop claim(s) and counterclaims fairly and thoroughly, supplying the most relevant evidence for each while pointing out the strengths and limitations of both in a manner that anticipates the audience’s knowledge level, concerns, values, and possible biases.

 
  • Use effective transitions as well as varied syntax to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships between claim(s) and reasons, between reasons and evidence, and between claim(s) and counterclaims.

 
  • Establish and maintain a consistent style and tone appropriate to purpose and audience.

 
  • Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented.  

 

 

11-12.W.4

Apply the writing process to –

 
  • Plan and develop; draft; revise using appropriate reference materials; rewrite; try a new approach, focusing on addressing what is most significant for a specific purpose and audience; and edit to produce and strengthen writing that is clear and coherent. 

 

Iowa

Argumentative

9th-10th Grades

IOWA

https://iowacore.gov/iowa-core/subject/literacy  (Adopted 2012)

 

Grade 9-10

 

Persuasive Essays

 
  1. Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence.

 
  1. Introduce precise claim(s), distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and create an organization that establishes clear relationships among claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence.

  2. Develop claim(s) and counterclaims fairly supplying evidence for each while pointing out the strengths and limitations of both in a manner that anticipates the audience’s knowledge level and concerns.

  3. Use words, phrases, and clauses to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships between claim(s) and reasons, between reasons and evidence, and between claim(s) and counterclaims.

  4. Establish the maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline in which they are writing.

  5. Provide a concluding statement or sections that follow from and supports the argument presented.

 

Production and Distribution of Writing

 

4. Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in standards 1-3 above)

 

5. Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying and new approach, focusing on addressing what is most significant for a specific purpose or audience. (Editing for conventions should demonstrate command of Language standards 1-3 up to and including grades 9-10)

 

9. Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.

 

10. Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of tasks, purposes, and audiences.

 
11th-12th Grades

IOWA

https://iowacore.gov/iowa-core/subject/literacy  (Adopted 2012)

 

Grade 11-12

 

Informative Essays

 

2.  Write informative/explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas, concepts, and information clearly and accurately through the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content.

 
  1. Introduce a topic; organize complex ideas, concepts, and information so that each new element builds on that which precedes it to create a unified whole; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics, (e.g., figures, tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.

  2. Develop the topic thoroughly by selecting the most significant and relevant facts, extended definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples appropriate to the audience’s knowledge of the topic.

  3. Use appropriate and varied transitions and syntax to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships among complex ideas and concepts.

  4. Use precise language, domain-specific vocabulary, and techniques such as a metaphor, simile, and analogy to manage the complexity of the topic.

  5. Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline in which they are writing.

  6. Provide a concluding statement or section  that follows from and supports the information or explanation presented (e.g., articulating implications or the significance of the topic).

 

Production and Distribution of Writing

 

4. Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in standards 1-3 above)

 

5. Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on addressing what is most significant for a specific purpose and audience. (Editing for conventions should demonstrate command of Language standards 1-3 up to and including grades 11-12)

 

9. Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.

 

10. Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of tasks, purposes and audiences.

 

Nebraska

Argumentative

9th-10th Grades

NEBRASKA

http://www.education.ne.gov/AcademicStandards/index.html (Adopted 2014)

 

Grades 9-10    

 

Persuasive Essays

 

LA 10.2 Writing: Students will learn and apply writing skills and strategies to communicate.

 

LA 10.2.1    Writing Process: Students will apply the writing process to plan, draft, revise, edit, and publish writing using correct spelling, grammar, punctuation, and other conventions of standard English appropriate for grade-level.

 

LA 10.2.1.a    Use multiple writing strategies recursively to investigate and generate ideas, organize information, guide writing, answer questions, and synthesize information.

 

LA 10.2.1.b    Generate a draft that conveys complex ideas and critical thinking through analysis, reflection, and use of effective organizational patterns that are appropriate to the purpose and intended audience.

 

LA 10.2.1.d    Apply standard rules of grammar and paragraph formation, including parallel structure and subordination.

 

LA 10.2.1.e    Revise to improve and clarify writing through self-monitoring strategies and feedback from others.

 

LA 10.2.1.g    Adjust writing processes to persevere in short and long-term writing tasks of increasing length and complexity.

 

LA 10.2.1.h    Proofread and edit writing recursively for format and conventions of standard English (e.g., spelling, capitalization, grammar, punctuation, syntax, semantics).

 

LA 10.2.1.i    Display academic honesty and integrity by avoiding plagiarism and/or overreliance on any one source and by following a standard format for citation.

 

LA 10.2.2    Writing Modes: Students will write in multiple modes for a variety of purposes and audiences across disciplines.

 

LA 10.2.2.a    Communicate information and ideas effectively in analytic, argumentative, descriptive, informative, narrative, poetic, persuasive, and reflective modes to multiple audiences using a variety of media and formats.

 

LA 10.2.2.b    Provide evidence from literary or informational text to support analysis, reflection, and research.

 

LA 10.2.2.d    Use precise word choice and domain-specific vocabulary to write in a variety of modes.

 

11th-12th Grades

NEBRASKA

http://www.education.ne.gov/AcademicStandards/index.html (Adopted 2014)

 

Grades 11-12    

 

Persuasive Essays

 

LA 12.2 Writing: Students will learn and apply writing skills and strategies to communicate.

 

LA 12.2.1    Writing Process: Students will apply the writing process to plan, draft, revise, edit, and publish writing using correct spelling, grammar, punctuation, and other conventions of standard English appropriate for grade-level.

 

LA 12.2.1.a    Use multiple writing strategies recursively to investigate and generate ideas, organize information, guide writing, answer questions, and synthesize information.

 

LA 12.2.1.b    Generate a draft that interprets complex ideas, raises relevant questions, solves problems, or evaluates ideas through synthesis, analysis, reflection, and use of effective organizational patterns that are appropriate to the purpose and intended audience.

 

LA 12.2.1.d    Apply standard rules of grammar and paragraph formation, including parallel structure and subordination.

 

LA 12.2.1.e    Revise to improve and clarify writing through self-monitoring strategies and feedback from others.

 

LA 12.2.1.g    Adjust writing processes to persevere in short and long-term writing tasks of increasing length and complexity.

 

LA 12.2.1.h    Proofread and edit writing recursively for format and conventions of standard English (e.g., spelling, capitalization, grammar, punctuation, syntax, semantics).

 

LA 12.2.1.i    Display academic honesty and integrity by avoiding plagiarism and/or overreliance on any one source and by following a standard format for citation.

 

LA 12.2.2    Writing Modes: Students will write in multiple modes for a variety of purposes and audiences across disciplines.

 

LA 12.2.2.a    Communicate information and ideas effectively in analytic, argumentative, descriptive, informative, narrative, poetic, persuasive, and reflective modes to multiple audiences using a variety of media and formats.

 

LA 12.2.2.b    Provide evidence from literary or informational text to support analysis, reflection, and research.

 

LA 12.2.2.d    Use precise word choice and domain-specific vocabulary to write in a variety of modes.

Oklahoma

Argumentative

9th Grade

OKLAHOMA

http://ok.gov/sde/oklahoma-academic-standards#OC3ELA  (Adopted 2014)

 

Grade 9    

 

Persuasive Essays

 

Standard 1: Writing Process. The student will use the writing process to write

coherently.

 

1.Use a writing process to develop and refine composition skills. Students are expected to:

a. use a variety of prewriting strategies such as brainstorming, outlining, free writing, discussing, clustering, webbing, using graphic organizers, notes, logs, or reading to generate ideas and gather information.

b. determine main idea by evaluating results of prewriting activities to select an appropriate topic.

c. identify audience and purpose for writing:

i. consider specific purposes for writing (e.g., to reflect, inform, explain, persuade, or share an experience or emotion

ii. understand the characteristics of a specific audience for the writing task.

d. identify appropriate mode/genre.

e. develop multiple drafts, individually and collaboratively, to categorize ideas, organize them into paragraphs, and blend paragraphs into larger text.

f. revise drafts.

g. edit for specific purposes to ensure standard usage, varied sentence structure, appropriate word choice, mechanics, and spelling.

h. refine selected pieces to publish for general and specific audiences.

 

2. Use elaboration to develop an idea:

a. draft a text with a clear controlling idea or thesis.

b. develop a coherent progression of ideas applying organizational strategies such as spatial, chronological, order of importance, compare/contrast, logical order, cause/effect, or classification/division.

c. apply different methods of support, such as facts, reasons, examples, sensory details.

d. apply a consistent and appropriate point of view.

 

3. Demonstrate organization, unity, and coherence by using transitions and sequencing:

a. Read the draft from the intended audience’s point of view to evaluate clarity of purpose.

b. Evaluate whether ideas and organizational patterns are clear and support the overall purpose of the piece.

c. Evaluate whether topic sentences, transitions within and between paragraphs, overall sequencing, and the progression of ideas is clear, focused, smooth and coherent.

d. Evaluate whether ideas are adequately developed. Move, add, delete, or replace text for clarity, audience, and purpose.

e. Evaluate whether word choice/figurative language is precise, compelling, effective, and appropriate.

f. Evaluate whether sentence structures are varied in type, length, and complexity.

 

4. Editing, Proofreading, and Evaluating:

a. Apply Standard English usage, correct spelling and usage in text. Correct errors in grammatical conventions (e.g., complete sentences, independent and dependent (restrictive/nonrestrictive) clauses, conjunctions for subordination, correlation, and coordination, subject verb agreement, consistent verb tense, pronoun-antecedent relationship, noun and pronoun agreement, use of prepositional phrases, adverbs, and adjectives).

b. Employ specified proofreading strategies and consults resources (e.g., spell checks, personal spelling lists, or dictionaries) to correct errors in spelling, capitalization, and punctuation, including punctuation of quotations

c. Use a specified format for in-text citation of source materials, for bibliographies, and for lists of works cited. Check against original source for accuracy

d. Demonstrate an understanding of the ethics of writing by creating a document free from plagiarism.

 

5.  Use a variety of sentence structures, types, and lengths to contribute to fluency and interest.

 

6.  Evaluate own writing and others' writing (e.g., determine the best features of a piece of writing, determine how own writing achieves its purpose, ask for feedback, and respond to classmates' writing).

 

Standard 2: Modes and Forms of Writing. The student will write for a variety of purposes and audiences using narrative, descriptive, expository, persuasive, and reflective modes.

 

At Grade 9, combine the rhetorical strategies of narration, exposition, persuasion, reflection, and description to produce text of at least 500 to 750 words. Final drafts are formatted appropriately for the mode. Begin writing documents related to career development. Demonstrate a command of Standard English and the research, organization, and drafting strategies outlined in the writing process. Writing demonstrates an awareness of the audience (intended reader) and purpose for writing.

 

3. Compose persuasive/argumentative compositions that:

a. include a well-defined thesis that makes a clear and knowledgeable appeal in a sustained and effective fashion.

b. use exposition, narration, and description to support the main argument.

c. clarify and defend positions with precise and relevant evidence, including facts, expert opinions, quotations, expressions of commonly accepted beliefs, and logical reasoning.

d. effectively address reader's concerns, counterclaims, biases, and expectations

10th Grade

OKLAHOMA

http://ok.gov/sde/oklahoma-academic-standards#OC3ELA  (Adopted 2014)

 

Grade 10    

 

Persuasive Essays

 

Standard 1: Writing Process - The student will use the writing process to write coherently.

 

1. Use a writing process to develop and refine composition skills. Students are expected to:

a. use a variety of prewriting strategies such as brainstorming, outlining, free writing, discussing, clustering, webbing, using graphic organizers, notes, logs, or reading to generate ideas and gather information.

b. analyze audience and purpose:

i. consider specific purposes for writing whether to reflect, inform, explain, persuade, make a social statement, or share an experience or emotion.

ii. analyze the characteristics of a specific audience (interests, beliefs, background knowledge) and select an appropriate audience for the writing task.

c. analyze appropriate mode/genre.

d. develop multiple drafts, individually and collaboratively, to categorize ideas, organize them into paragraphs, and blend paragraphs into larger text.

e. revise for appropriateness of organization, content, and style.

f. edit for specific purposes such as to insure standard usage, varied sentence structure, appropriate word choice, mechanics, and spelling.

g. refine selected pieces to publish for general and specific audiences.

 

2. Use elaboration to develop an idea:

a. draft a text with a clear controlling idea or thesis.

b. develop a coherent progression of ideas applying organizational strategies such as spatial, chronological, order of importance, compare/contrast, logical order, cause/effect, or classification/division.

c. apply different methods of support, such as facts, reasons, examples, sensory details, anecdotes, paraphrases, quotes, reflections, and dialogue.

d. apply a consistent and appropriate point of view.

e. understand and apply formal and informal diction.

 

3. Demonstrate organization, unity, and coherence by using transitions and sequencing:

a. read the draft from the intended audience’s point of view to evaluate clarity of purpose.

b. evaluate whether ideas and organizational patterns are clear and support the overall purpose of the piece.

c. evaluate whether the topic sentences, transitions within and between paragraphs, overall sequencing, and the progression of ideas is clear, focused, smooth, and coherent.

d. evaluate whether ideas are adequately developed. Move, add, delete, or replace text for clarity, audience, and purpose.

e. evaluate whether word choice/figurative language is precise, compelling, effective, and appropriate.

f. evaluate whether sentence structures are varied in type, length, and complexity.

 

4. Editing/Proofreading and Evaluating: Use precise word choices, including figurative language, that convey specific meaning:

a. apply Standard English usage, spelling and mechanics to text.

b. correct errors in grammatical conventions.

c. employ specified editing/proofreading strategies and consult resources (e.g., spell checks, personal spelling lists, or dictionaries) to correct errors in spelling, capitalization, and punctuation, including punctuation of quotations.

d. use a specified format for in-text citation of source materials, for bibliographies, and for lists of works cited (check against original source for accuracy).

e. demonstrate an understanding of the ethics of writing by creating a document free from plagiarism.

 

5. Use a variety of sentence structures, types, and lengths to contribute to fluency and interest.

 

6. Evaluate own writing and others' writing (e.g., determine the best features of a piece of writing, determine how writing achieves its purpose, ask for feedback, and respond to classmates' writing).

 

Standard 2: Modes and Forms of Writing. The student will write for a variety of purposes and audiences using creative, narrative, descriptive, expository, persuasive, and reflective modes.

 

At Grade 10, combine the rhetorical strategies of narration, exposition, persuasion, reflection, and description to produce text of at least 750 to 1,000 words. Compose business letters.  Demonstrate a command of Standard English and the research, organization, and drafting strategies outlined in the writing process. Writing demonstrates an awareness of the audience (intended reader) and purpose for writing that are frequently published for a general or specific audience. Final drafts are formatted appropriate for the mode/genre.

 

3. Compose persuasive/argumentative compositions that:

a. include a well-defined thesis that makes a clear and knowledgeable appeal in a sustained and effective fashion.

b. use exposition, narration, description, and argumentation to support the main argument.

c. use specific rhetorical devices to support assertions, such as appealing to logic through reason, appealing to emotion or ethical beliefs, or relating to a personal anecdote, case study, or analogy.

d. clarify and defend positions with precise and relevant evidence, including facts, expert opinions, quotations, expressions of commonly accepted beliefs, and logical reasoning.

e. effectively address reader’s concerns, counterclaims, biases, and expectations.

 

6. Use appropriate essay test-taking and time-writing strategies that:

a. budget time for prewriting, drafting, revising, and editing.

b. prioritize the question/prompt.

c. identify the common directives from the prompt (identify command verbs: explain, compare, evaluate, define, and develop, etc.)

d. analyze the question/prompt and determine the appropriate mode of writing, audience, and tone.

e. apply appropriate organizational methods to thoroughly address the prompt.

11th Grade

OKLAHOMA

http://ok.gov/sde/oklahoma-academic-standards#OC3ELA  (Adopted 2014)

 

Grade 11    

 

Persuasive Essays

 

Standard 1: Writing Process. The student will use the writing process to write coherently.

 

1. Students are expected to:

a. use a variety of prewriting strategies such as brainstorming, free writing, outlining, discussing, clustering, webbing, using graphic organizers, notes logs, or reading to generate ideas, develop voice, gather information, and plan.

b. develop main idea/thesis. Evaluate results of prewriting activities and select appropriate topic.

c. evaluate audience and purpose:

i. consider specific purposes for writing (e.g., to reflect, inform, explain, persuade, make social and/or political statements, or share an experience or emotion).

ii. evaluate possible modes/genres and select one, remembering that the choice of the mode/genre will guide the treatment of the topic, the development of a stance toward the audience, and the organizational structure.

d. develop multiple drafts, individually and collaboratively, to categorize ideas, organize them into paragraphs, and blend paragraphs into larger text.

e. revise drafts for organization, content and style.

f.  edit for specific purposes such as to ensure standard usage, varied sentence structure, appropriate word choice, mechanics, and spelling.

g. refine selected pieces to publish for general and specific audiences.

 

2. Use elaboration to develop an idea:

a. draft a text with a clear, controlling idea or thesis.

b. develop a coherent progression of ideas applying organizational strategies such as spatial, chronological, order of importance, compare/contrast, logical order, cause/effect, or classification/division.

c. apply different methods of support, such as facts, reasons, examples, sensory details, anecdotes, paraphrases, quotes, reflections, and dialogue.

d. apply a consistent and appropriate point of view, establish a credible voice, and create a suitable tone.

e. understand and apply formal and informal diction for a desired effect.

 

3. Demonstrate organization, unity, and coherence during revision process:

a. read the draft from the intended audience’s point of view to evaluate clarity of purpose.

b. evaluate whether ideas and organizational patterns are clear and support the overall purpose of the piece.

c. evaluate whether topic sentences, transitions within and between paragraphs, overall sequencing, and the progression of ideas is clear, focused, smooth, and coherent.

d. evaluate whether ideas are adequately developed.

e. apply a consistent and appropriate point of view.

f. understand and apply formal and informal diction.

 

4. Editing/proofreading and evaluating:

a. apply Standard English usage and correct spelling in text.

b. employs specified editing/proofreading strategies and consults resources (e.g., handbooks and style manuals, spell checks, personal spelling lists, dictionaries, thesauruses, or style sheets) to correct errors in spelling, capitalization, and punctuation, including punctuation of quotations.

c. use a specified format for in-text citation of source materials for bibliographies and for lists of works cited, and check against original source for accuracy.

d. demonstrate an understanding of the ethics of writing by creating a document free from plagiarism.

 

5. Use point of view, characterization, style, and related elements for specific rhetorical (communication) and aesthetic (artistic) purposes.

 

6. Structure ideas and arguments in a sustained and persuasive way and support them with precise and relevant examples.

 

7. Evaluate own writing and others' writing to highlight the individual voice, improve sentence variety and style, and enhance subtlety of meaning and tone in ways that are consistent with the purpose, audience, and form of writing.

 

Standard 2: Modes and Forms of writing. The student will write for a variety of purposes and audiences using creative, narrative, descriptive, expository, persuasive, and reflective modes.

 

At Grade 11, continue to combine the rhetorical strategies of narration, exposition, persuasion, reflection, and description to produce text of at least 1,500 words. Refine reflective compositions and become familiar with forms of job applications and resumes. Deliver multimedia presentations on varied topics. Demonstrate a command of Standard English and the research, organization, and drafting strategies outlined in the writing process. Writing demonstrates an awareness of the audience [intended reader] and purpose for writing.

 

3. Compose persuasive compositions that:

a. include a well-defined thesis that makes a clear and knowledgeable appeal in a sustained and effective fashion.

b. use exposition, narration, description, and argumentation to support the main argument.

c. use specific rhetorical devices to support assertions such as personal anecdote, case study, analogy, or logical, emotional, and/or ethical appeal.

d. clarify and defend positions with precise and relevant evidence, including facts, expert opinions, quotations, expressions of commonly accepted beliefs, and logical reasoning.

e. effectively address reader’s concerns, counterclaims, and individual or group biases.

 

7. Write for different purposes and to a specific audience or person, adjusting tone and style as necessary to make writing interesting. Continue to produce other writing forms introduced in earlier grades.

 

9. Use appropriate essay test-taking and time-writing strategies that:

a. budget time for prewriting, drafting, revising, and editing.

b. prioritize question/prompt.

c. identify common directives from the prompt (identify common verbs: explain, compare, evaluate, define, and develop, etc.).

d. analyze the question/prompt and determine the appropriate mode of writing, audience, and tone.

e. apply appropriate organizational methods to thoroughly address the prompt.

f. evaluate work using editing checklist or rubric if available.

12th Grade

OKLAHOMA

http://ok.gov/sde/oklahoma-academic-standards#OC3ELA  (Adopted 2014)

 

Grade 12    

 

Persuasive Essays

 

Standard 1: Writing Process - The student will use the writing process to write coherently.

 

1. Use a writing process to develop and refine composition skills. Students are expected to:

a. use a variety of prewriting strategies such as brainstorming, outlining, free writing, discussing, clustering, webbing, using graphic organizers, notes logs, interviews, or reading to generate ideas, develop voice, gather information, and plan.

b. develop main idea/thesis.

c. evaluate results of prewriting activities and select appropriate topic.

d. evaluate audience and purpose for writing:

i. consider specific purposes for writing (e.g., to reflect, inform, explain, persuade, make a social and/or political statement, or share an experience or emotion).

ii. evaluate the writing task, considering the assumptions, values, and background knowledge of the intended audience.

e. evaluate possible modes/genres and select one, remembering that the choice of the mode/genre will guide the treatment of the topic, the development of a stance toward the audience, and the organizational structure.

f. develop multiple drafts, individually and collaboratively, to categorize ideas organize them into paragraphs, and blend paragraphs into larger text.

g. revise drafts for organization, content, and style.

h. edit/proofread for specific purposes such as to ensure standard usage, varied sentence structure, appropriate word choice, mechanics, and spelling.

i. refine selected pieces to publish for general and specific audiences.

 

2. Use elaboration to develop an idea:

a. draft a text with a clear, controlling idea or thesis

b. develop a coherent progression of ideas applying organizational strategies such as spatial, chronological, order of importance, compare/contrast, logical order, cause/effect, or classification/division.

c. apply different methods of support, such as facts, reasons, examples, sensory details, anecdotes, paraphrases, quotes, reflections, and dialogue.

d. apply a consistent and appropriate point of view, establish a credible voice, and create a suitable tone.

e. understand and apply formal and informal diction for a desired effect.

 

3. Demonstrate organization, unity and coherence during revision process:

a. read the draft from the intended audience’s point of view to evaluate clarity of purpose.

b. evaluate whether ideas and organizational patterns are clear and support the overall purpose of the piece.

c. evaluate whether topic sentences, transitions within and between paragraphs, overall sequencing, and the progression of ideas is clear, focused, smooth, and coherent.

d. evaluate whether ideas are adequately developed.

e. apply a consistent and appropriate point of view.

f. understand and apply formal and informal diction.

 

4. Editing/proofreading and evaluating:

a. apply Standard English usage and correct spelling in text.

b. employs specified editing/proofreading strategies and consults resources (e.g., handbooks and style manuals, spell checks, personal spelling lists, dictionaries, thesauruses, or style sheets) to correct errors in spelling, capitalization, and punctuation, including punctuation of quotations.

c. use a specified format for in-text citation of source materials for bibliographies and for lists of works cited, and check against original source for accuracy.

d. demonstrate an understanding of the ethics of writing by creating a document free from plagiarism.

 

5. Use point of view, characterization, style, and related elements for specific rhetorical (communication) and aesthetic (artistic) purposes.

 

6. Structure ideas and arguments in a sustained and persuasive way and support them with precise and relevant examples.

 

7. Evaluate own and others' writing to highlight the individual voice, improve sentence variety and style, and enhance subtlety of meaning and tone in ways that are consistent with the purpose, audience, and form of writing.

 

8. Further develop unique writing style and voice, improve sentence variety, and enhance subtlety of meaning and tone in ways that are consistent with the purpose, audience, and form of writing.

 

Standard 2: Modes and Forms of Writing. The student will write for a variety of purposes and audiences using creative, narrative, descriptive, expository, persuasive, and reflective modes.

 

At Grade 12, continue to combine the rhetorical strategies of narration, exposition, persuasion, and description: to produce text, reflective compositions, historical investigation reports, and deliver multimedia presentations. The writing demonstrates a command of Standard English and the research, organization, and drafting strategies outlined in the writing process. Writing demonstrates an awareness of the audience (intended reader) and purpose for writing.

 

3.  Compose persuasive compositions that:

a. include a well-defined thesis that makes a clear and knowledgeable appeal in a sustained and effective fashion.

b. use exposition, narration, description, and argumentation to support the main argument.

c. use specific rhetorical devices to support assertions such as personal anecdote, case study, analogy, or logical, emotional, and/or ethical appeal.

d. clarify and defend positions with precise and relevant evidence, including facts, expert opinions, quotations, expressions of commonly accepted beliefs, and logical reasoning.

e. effectively address reader’s concerns, counterclaims, and individual or group biases.

 

7. Write for different purposes and to a specific audience or person, adjusting tone and style as necessary to make writing interesting. Continue to produce other forms of writing introduced in earlier grades.

 

9. Use appropriate essay test-taking and time writing strategies that:

a. budget time for prewriting, drafting, revising, and editing.

b. prioritize the question/prompt.

c. identify common directives from the question/prompt (identify common verbs: explain, compare, evaluate, define, and develop, etc.).

d. analyze the question/prompt and determine the appropriate mode of writing, audience, and tone.

e. apply appropriate organizational methods to thoroughly address the question/prompt.

f. evaluate work using editing checklist or rubric, if available.

 

Pennsylvania

Argumentative

9th-10th Grades

PENNSYLVANIA CORE STANDARDS

http://www.pdesas.org/standard/PACore (Amended 2014)

 

Grades 9-10

 

Persuasive Essays

 

1.4  Writing - Students write for different purposes and audiences. Students write clear and focused text to convey a well-defined perspective and appropriate content.

 

CC.1.4.9–10.G

Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics.

 

CC.1.4.9–10.H

Write with a sharp, distinct focus identifying topic, task, and audience.

  • Introduce the precise claim.

 

CC.1.4.9–10.I

Distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims; develop claim(s) fairly, supplying evidence for each while pointing out the strengths and limitations of both in a manner that anticipates the audience’s knowledge level and concerns.

 

CC.1.4.9–10.J

Create organization that establishes clear relationships among claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence; use words, phrases, and clauses to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships between claim(s) and reasons, between reasons and evidence, and between claim(s) and counterclaims; provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented.

 

CC.1.4.9–10.K

Write with an awareness of the stylistic aspects of composition.

  • Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to manage the complexity of the topic.

  • Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms of the discipline in which they are writing.

 

CC.1.4.9–10.L

Demonstrate a grade-appropriate command of the conventions of standard English grammar, usage, capitalization, punctuation, and spelling.

 

CC.1.4.9–10.T

Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on addressing what is most significant for a specific purpose and audience.

 

CC.1.4.9–10.X

Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences.

 
11th-12th Grades

PENNSYLVANIA CORE STANDARDS

http://www.pdesas.org/standard/PACore (Amended 2014)

 

Grades 11-12

 

Persuasive Essays

 

1.4  Writing - Students write for different purposes and audiences. Students write clear and focused text to convey a well-defined perspective and appropriate content.

 

CC.1.4.11–12.G

Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics.

 

CC.1.4.11–12.H

Write with a sharp, distinct focus identifying topic, task, and audience.

Introduce the precise, knowledgeable claim.

 

CC.1.4.11–12.I

Distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims; develop claim(s) and counterclaims fairly and thoroughly, supplying the most relevant evidence for each while pointing out the strengths and limitations of both in a manner that anticipates the audience’s knowledge level, concerns, values, and possible biases.

 

CC.1.4.11–12.J

Create organization that logically sequences claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence; use words, phrases, and clauses as well as varied syntax to link the major sections of the text to create cohesion and clarify the relationships between claim(s) and reasons, between reasons and evidence, and between claim(s) and counterclaims; provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented.

 

CC.1.4.11–12.K

Write with an awareness of the stylistic aspects of composition

  • Use precise language, domain-specific vocabulary, and techniques such as metaphor, simile, and analogy to manage the complexity of the topic.

  • Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms of the discipline in which they are writing.

 

CC.1.4.11–12.L

Demonstrate a grade-appropriate command of the conventions of standard English grammar, usage, capitalization, punctuation, and spelling.

 

South Carolina

Argumentative

9th Grade

SOUTH CAROLINA

http://ed.sc.gov/instruction/standards-learning/english-language-arts/standards/  (Adopted 2015)

 

English 1    

 

Persuasive Essays

 

Fundamentals of Writing

Employ a recursive writing process that includes planning, drafting, revising, editing, rewriting, publishing, and reflecting.

Interact and collaborate with peers and adults to develop and strengthen writing.

Produce writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, discipline, and audience.

Use clear and coherent written language to accomplish a purpose such as learning, enjoyment, argument, and the exchange of information.

Monitor progress throughout the writing process and adjust strategies as needed from independence to collaboration within a writing community.

 

Standard 1: Write arguments to support claims with clear reasons and relevant evidence.

 

1.1 Write arguments that:

 

a. introduce a precise claim and differentiate between the claim and counterclaims;

b. use relevant information from multiple print and multimedia sources;

c. assess the credibility and accuracy of each source;

d. use an organizational structure that logically sequences and establishes clear relationships among claims, counterclaims, reasons, warrants, and evidence;

e. develop the claim and counterclaims ethically without bias, providing credible evidence and accurate interpretation of data for each while delineating the strengths and limitations of the claim and counterclaims;

f. develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting;

g. quote or paraphrase the data and conclusions of others while avoiding plagiarism and following a standard format for citation;

h. avoid logical fallacies and demonstrate an understanding of objectivity and subjectivity;

i. provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented;

j. include a call to action.

 

Standard 6: Write independently, legibly, and routinely for a variety of tasks, purposes, and audiences over short and extended time frames.

 

6.1 Write routinely and persevere in writing tasks over short and extended time frames, for a range of domain-specific tasks, and for a variety of purposes and audiences.

10th Grade

SOUTH CAROLINA

http://ed.sc.gov/instruction/standards-learning/english-language-arts/standards/  (Adopted 2015)

 

English 2    

 

Persuasive Essays

 

Fundamentals of Writing

Employ a recursive writing process that includes planning, drafting, revising, editing, rewriting, publishing, and reflecting.

Interact and collaborate with peers and adults to develop and strengthen writing.

Produce writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, discipline, and audience.

Use clear and coherent written language to accomplish a purpose such as learning, enjoyment, argument, and the exchange of information.

Monitor progress throughout the writing process and adjust strategies as needed from independence to collaboration within a writing community.

 

Standard 1: Write arguments to support claims with clear reasons and relevant evidence.

 

1.1 Write arguments that:

 

a. introduce a precise claim and differentiate between the claim and counterclaims;

b. use relevant information from multiple print and multimedia sources;

c. assess the credibility and accuracy of each source;

d. use an organizational structure that logically sequences and establishes clear relationships among claims, counterclaims, reasons, warrants, and evidence;

e. develop the claim and counterclaims ethically without bias, providing credible evidence and accurate interpretation of data for each while delineating the strengths and limitations of the claim and counterclaims;

f. develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting;

g. quote or paraphrase the data and conclusions of others while avoiding plagiarism

h. avoid logical fallacies and demonstrate an understanding of objectivity and subjectivity;

i. provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented;

j. include a call to action.

 

Standard 6: Write independently, legibly, and routinely for a variety of tasks, purposes, and audiences over short and extended time frames.

 

6.1 Write routinely and persevere in writing tasks over short and extended time frames, for a range of domain-specific tasks, and for a variety of purposes and audiences.

11th Grade

SOUTH CAROLINA

http://ed.sc.gov/instruction/standards-learning/english-language-arts/standards/  (Adopted 2015)

 

English 3    

 

Persuasive Essays

 

Fundamentals of Writing

Employ a recursive writing process that includes planning, drafting, revising, editing, rewriting, publishing, and reflecting.

Interact and collaborate with peers and adults to develop and strengthen writing.

Produce writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, discipline, and audience.

Use clear and coherent written language to accomplish a purpose such as learning, enjoyment, argument, and the exchange of information.

Monitor progress throughout the writing process and adjust strategies as needed from independence to collaboration within a writing community.

 

Standard 1: Write arguments to support claims with clear reasons and relevant evidence.

 

1.1 Write arguments that:

 

a. introduce a clearly articulated and well-informed claim, establish the significance of the claim and differentiate between the claim and counterclaims;

b. use relevant information from multiple print and multimedia sources;

c. assess the credibility and accuracy of each source;

d. create an organizational structure that logically sequences claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, warrants, and evidence;

e. develop claim and counterclaims fairly and thoroughly, supplying the most relevant evidence for each while pointing out the strengths and limitations of both in a manner that anticipates the audience’s knowledge level, concerns, values, and possible biases;

f. use words, phrases, and clauses as well as varied syntax to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships between claims and reasons, between reasons and evidence, and between claims and counterclaims;

g. establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline;

h. develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting;

i. quote or paraphrase the data and conclusions of others while avoiding plagiarism

j. avoid logical fallacies and demonstrate an understanding of objectivity and subjectivity;

k. provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented;

l. include a call to action.

 

Standard 6: Write independently, legibly, and routinely for a variety of tasks, purposes, and audiences over short and extended time frames.

 

6.1 Write routinely and persevere in writing tasks over short and extended time frames, for a range of domain-specific tasks, and for a variety of purposes and audiences.

12th Grade

SOUTH CAROLINA

http://ed.sc.gov/instruction/standards-learning/english-language-arts/standards/  (Adopted 2015)

 

English 4    

 

Persuasive Essays

 

Fundamentals of Writing

Employ a recursive writing process that includes planning, drafting, revising, editing, rewriting, publishing, and reflecting.

Interact and collaborate with peers and adults to develop and strengthen writing.

Produce writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, discipline, and audience.

Use clear and coherent written language to accomplish a purpose such as learning, enjoyment, argument, and the exchange of information.

Monitor progress throughout the writing process and adjust strategies as needed from independence to collaboration within a writing community.

 

Standard 1: Write arguments to support claims with clear reasons and relevant evidence.

 

1.1 Write arguments that:

 

a. introduce a clearly articulated and well-informed claim, establish the significance of the claim and differentiate between the claim and counterclaims;

b. use relevant information from multiple print and multimedia sources;

c. assess the credibility and accuracy of each source;

d. create an organizational structure that logically sequences claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, warrants, and evidence;

e. develop claim and counterclaims fairly and thoroughly, supplying the most relevant evidence for each while pointing out the strengths and limitations of both in a manner that anticipates the audience’s knowledge level, concerns, values, and possible biases;

f. use words, phrases, and clauses as well as varied syntax to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships between claims and reasons, between reasons and evidence, and between claims and counterclaims;

g. establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline;

h. develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting;

i.  quote or paraphrase the data and conclusions of others while avoiding plagiarism

j.  avoid logical fallacies and demonstrate an understanding of objectivity and subjectivity;

k. provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented;

l. include a call to action.

 

Standard 6: Write independently, legibly, and routinely for a variety of tasks, purposes, and audiences over short and extended time frames.

 

6.1 Write routinely and persevere in writing tasks over short and extended time frames, for a range of domain-specific tasks, and for a variety of purposes and audiences.


Texas

Argumentative

9th Grade

TEXAS ESSENTIAL KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS (TEKS)

http://tea.texas.gov/curriculum/teks/ (Amended 2010)

 

High School – English I

 

Persuasive Essays

 

(13)  Writing/Writing Process. Students use elements of the writing process (planning, drafting, revising, editing, and publishing) to compose text. Students are expected to:

(A)  plan a first draft by selecting the correct genre for conveying the intended meaning to multiple audiences, determining appropriate topics through a range of strategies (e.g., discussion, background reading, personal interests, interviews), and developing a thesis or controlling idea;

(B)  structure ideas in a sustained and persuasive way (e.g., using outlines, note taking, graphic organizers, lists) and develop drafts in timed and open-ended situations that include transitions and the rhetorical devices used to convey meaning;

(C)  revise drafts to improve style, word choice, figurative language, sentence variety, and subtlety of meaning after rethinking how well questions of purpose, audience, and genre have been addressed;

(D)  edit drafts for grammar, mechanics, and spelling; and

(E)  revise final draft in response to feedback from peers and teacher and publish written work for appropriate audiences.

(16)  Writing/Persuasive Texts. Students write persuasive texts to influence the attitudes or actions of a specific audience on specific issues. Students are expected to write an argumentative essay to the appropriate audience that includes:

(A)  a clear thesis or position based on logical reasons supported by precise and relevant evidence;

(B)  consideration of the whole range of information and views on the topic and accurate and honest representation of these views;

(C)  counter-arguments based on evidence to anticipate and address objections;

(D)  an organizing structure appropriate to the purpose, audience, and context; and

(E)  an analysis of the relative value of specific data, facts, and ideas.

10th Grade

TEXAS ESSENTIAL KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS (TEKS)

http://tea.texas.gov/curriculum/teks/ (Amended 2010)

 

High School – English II

 

Persuasive Essays

 

(13)  Writing/Writing Process. Students use elements of the writing process (planning, drafting, revising, editing, and publishing) to compose text. Students are expected to:

(A)  plan a first draft by selecting the correct genre for conveying the intended meaning to multiple audiences, determining appropriate topics through a range of strategies (e.g., discussion, background reading, personal interests, interviews), and developing a thesis or controlling idea;

(B)  structure ideas in a sustained and persuasive way (e.g., using outlines, note taking, graphic organizers, lists) and develop drafts in timed and open-ended situations that include transitions and rhetorical devices used to convey meaning;

(C)  revise drafts to improve style, word choice, figurative language, sentence variety, and subtlety of meaning after rethinking how well questions of purpose, audience, and genre have been addressed;

(D)  edit drafts for grammar, mechanics, and spelling; and

(E)  revise final draft in response to feedback from peers and teacher and publish written work for appropriate audiences.

(16)  Writing/Persuasive Texts. Students write persuasive texts to influence the attitudes or actions of a specific audience on specific issues. Students are expected to write an argumentative essay to the appropriate audience that includes:

(A)  a clear thesis or position based on logical reasons supported by precise and relevant evidence;

(B)  consideration of the whole range of information and views on the topic and accurate and honest representation of these views (i.e., in the author's own words and not out of context);

(C)  counter-arguments based on evidence to anticipate and address objections;

(D)  an organizing structure appropriate to the purpose, audience, and context;

(E)  an analysis of the relative value of specific data, facts, and ideas; and

(F)  a range of appropriate appeals (e.g., descriptions, anecdotes, case studies, analogies, illustrations).

11th Grade

TEXAS ESSENTIAL KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS (TEKS)

http://tea.texas.gov/curriculum/teks/ (Amended 2010)

 

High School – English III

 

Persuasive Essays

 

(13)  Writing/Writing Process. Students use elements of the writing process (planning, drafting, revising, editing, and publishing) to compose text. Students are expected to:

(A)  plan a first draft by selecting the correct genre for conveying the intended meaning to multiple audiences, determining appropriate topics through a range of strategies (e.g., discussion, background reading, personal interests, interviews), and developing a thesis or controlling idea;

(B)  structure ideas in a sustained and persuasive way (e.g., using outlines, note taking, graphic organizers, lists) and develop drafts in timed and open-ended situations that include transitions and rhetorical devices to convey meaning;

(C)  revise drafts to clarify meaning and achieve specific rhetorical purposes, consistency of tone, and logical organization by rearranging the words, sentences, and paragraphs to employ tropes (e.g., metaphors, similes, analogies, hyperbole, understatement, rhetorical questions, irony), schemes (e.g., parallelism, antithesis, inverted word order, repetition, reversed structures), and by adding transitional words and phrases;

(D)  edit drafts for grammar, mechanics, and spelling; and

(E)  revise final draft in response to feedback from peers and teacher and publish written work for appropriate audiences.

(16)  Writing/Persuasive Texts. Students write persuasive texts to influence the attitudes or actions of a specific audience on specific issues. Students are expected to write an argumentative essay (e.g., evaluative essays, proposals) to the appropriate audience that includes:

(A)  a clear thesis or position based on logical reasons supported by precise and relevant evidence, including facts, expert opinions, quotations, and/or expressions of commonly accepted beliefs;

(B)  accurate and honest representation of divergent views (i.e., in the author's own words and not out of context);

(C)  an organizing structure appropriate to the purpose, audience, and context;

(D)  information on the complete range of relevant perspectives;

(E)  demonstrated consideration of the validity and reliability of all primary and secondary sources used; and

(F)  language attentively crafted to move a disinterested or opposed audience, using specific rhetorical devices to back up assertions (e.g., appeals to logic, emotions, ethical beliefs).

12th Grade  

TEXAS ESSENTIAL KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS (TEKS)

http://tea.texas.gov/curriculum/teks/ (Amended 2010)

 

High School – English IV

 

Persuasive Essays

 

(13)  Writing/Writing Process. Students use elements of the writing process (planning, drafting, revising, editing, and publishing) to compose text. Students are expected to:

(A)  plan a first draft by selecting the correct genre for conveying the intended meaning to multiple audiences, determining appropriate topics through a range of strategies (e.g., discussion, background reading, personal interests, interviews), and developing a thesis or controlling idea;

(B)  structure ideas in a sustained and persuasive way (e.g., using outlines, note taking, graphic organizers, lists) and develop drafts in timed and open-ended situations that include transitions and the rhetorical devices to convey meaning;

(C)  revise drafts to clarify meaning and achieve specific rhetorical purposes, consistency of tone, and logical organization by rearranging the words, sentences, and paragraphs to employ tropes (e.g., metaphors, similes, analogies, hyperbole, understatement, rhetorical questions, irony), schemes (e.g., parallelism, antithesis, inverted word order, repetition, reversed structures), and by adding transitional words and phrases;

(D)  edit drafts for grammar, mechanics, and spelling; and

(E)  revise final draft in response to feedback from peers and teacher and publish written work for appropriate audiences.

(16)  Writing/Persuasive Texts. Students write persuasive texts to influence the attitudes or actions of a specific audience on specific issues. Students are expected to write an argumentative essay (e.g., evaluative essays, proposals) to the appropriate audience that includes:

(A)  a clear thesis or position based on logical reasons with various forms of support (e.g., hard evidence, reason, common sense, cultural assumptions);

(B)  accurate and honest representation of divergent views (i.e., in the author's own words and not out of context);

(C)  an organizing structure appropriate to the purpose, audience, and context;

(D)  information on the complete range of relevant perspectives;

(E)  demonstrated consideration of the validity and reliability of all primary and secondary sources used;

(F)  language attentively crafted to move a disinterested or opposed audience, using specific rhetorical devices to back up assertions (e.g., appeals to logic, emotions, ethical beliefs); and

(G)  an awareness and anticipation of audience response that is reflected in different levels of formality, style, and tone.

 

Virginia

Argumentative

9th Grade

VIRGINIA ELA STANDARDS AND SKILLS

http://www.doe.virginia.gov (Adopted 2010)

 

Grade 9

 

Persuasive Essays

 

9.6  The student will develop narrative, expository, and persuasive writings for a variety of audiences and purposes.

 

a)    Generate, gather, and organize ideas for writing.

b)    Plan and organize writing to address a specific audience and purpose.

c)    Communicate clearly the purpose of the writing using a thesis statement where appropriate.

d)    Write clear, varied sentences using specific vocabulary and information.

e)    Elaborate ideas clearly through word choice and vivid description.

f)    Arrange paragraphs into a logical progression.

g)    Use transitions between paragraphs and ideas.

h)    Revise writing for clarity of content, accuracy and depth of information.    

i)    Use computer technology to plan, draft, revise, edit, and publish writing

 

To be successful with this standard, students are expected to:

  • use prewriting strategies and organize writing.

  • plan and develop organized and focused written products that demonstrate their understanding of composing, written expression, and usage/mechanics and that reflect an appropriate audience and purpose.

  • demonstrate the purpose of writing as narrative, persuasive, expository, or analytical.

  • apply narrative techniques, such as dialogue, description, and pacing to develop experiences or characters.

  • write using a clear, focused thesis that addresses the purpose for writing.

  • provide an engaging introduction and a clear thesis statement that introduces the information presented.

  • write clear, varied sentences, and increase the use of embedded clauses.

  • use specific vocabulary and information.

  • use precise language to convey a vivid picture.

  • develop the topic with appropriate information, details, and examples.

  • arrange paragraphs into a logical progression using appropriate words or phrases to signal organizational pattern and transitions between ideas.

  • revise writing for clarity, content, depth of information, and intended audience and purpose.

  • use computer technology to assist in the writing process.

 

10th Grade

VIRGINIA ELA STANDARDS AND SKILLS

http://www.doe.virginia.gov (Adopted 2010)

 

Grade 10

 

Persuasive Essays

 

10.6     The student will develop a variety of writing to persuade, interpret, analyze, and evaluate with an emphasis on exposition and analysis.

 

a)    Generate, gather, plan, and organize ideas for writing to address a specific audience and purpose.

b)    Synthesize information to support the thesis.    

c)    Elaborate ideas clearly through word choice and vivid description.

d)    Write clear and varied sentences, clarifying ideas with precise and relevant evidence.    

e)    Organize ideas into a logical sequence using transitions.    

f)    Revise writing for clarity of content, accuracy, and depth of information.  

g)    Use computer technology to plan, draft, revise, edit, and publish writing.

 

To be successful with this standard, students are expected to:

  • develop written products that demonstrate their understanding of composing, written expression, and usage/mechanics.

  • write persuasively and analytically on a variety of literary and nonliterary subjects.

  • develop writing that analyzes complex issues.

  • plan and organize their ideas for writing.

  • state a thesis and support it.

  • elaborate ideas in order to provide support for the thesis.

  • use visual and sensory language as needed for effect.

  • vary sentence structures for effect.

  • identify and apply features of the writing domains, including

    • effective organization;
    • clear structure;
    • sentence variety;
    • unity and coherence;
    • tone and voice;
    • effective word choice;
    • clear purpose;
    • appropriate mechanics and usage; and
    • accurate and valuable information.
  • develop ideas deductively and inductively and organize ideas into a logical sequence, applying effective organizational patterns/techniques, such as:

    • comparison/contrast;
    • chronological order;
    • spatial layout;
    • cause and effect;
    • definition;
    • order of importance;
    • explanation;
    • generalization;
    • classification;
    • enumeration; and
    • problem/solution.
  • evaluate analytical writing by examining and understanding how individual parts of the text relate to the whole, including the writing’s purpose and structure.

  • revise writing for clarity of content and presentation.

  • use peer- and self-evaluation to review and revise writing.

  • use computer technology to assist in the writing process.

 

11th Grade

VIRGINIA ELA STANDARDS AND SKILLS

http://www.doe.virginia.gov (Adopted 2010)

 

Grade 11

 

Persuasive Essays

 

11.6    The student will write in a variety of forms, with an emphasis on persuasion.

 

a)    Generate, gather, plan, and organize ideas for writing to address a specific audience and purpose.

b)    Produce arguments in writing that develop a thesis that demonstrates knowledgeable judgments, addresses counterclaims, and     provides effective conclusions.

c)    Organize ideas in a sustained and logical manner.

d)    Clarify and defend position with precise and relevant evidence elaborating ideas clearly and accurately.

e)    Adapt content, vocabulary, voice, and tone to audience, purpose, and situation.

f)    Revise writing for clarity of content, accuracy and depth of information.

g)    Use computer technology to plan, draft, revise, edit, and publish writing.

h)    Write and revise correspondence to a standard acceptable both in the workplace and in postsecondary education.

 

To be successful with this standard, students are expected to:

  • apply a variety of planning strategies to generate and organize ideas.

  • present a thesis that focuses on the problem or argument to be solved.

  • anticipate and address the counterevidence, counterclaims, and counterarguments.  

  • use effective rhetorical appeals, to establish credibility and persuade intended audience.

  • refine the thesis by considering whether the  claim is  relevant, interesting, logical, and meaningful.

  • understand a variety of organizational patterns.

  • use appropriate and varied transitions to link sentences and paragraphs.

  • elaborate ideas clearly and accurately.

  • show how evidence supports each main point of the argument and justify why the evidence credibly supports the claims.  

  • introduce claim(s), acknowledge and distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims.

  • organize the reasons and evidence logically.

  • use specific revision strategies and adapt content, vocabulary, voice, and tone to audience, purpose, and situation.

  • select an appropriate audience by analyzing assumptions, values, and background knowledge.

  • develop the topic thoroughly by selecting facts, details, quotations, and

appropriate examples for the audience and purpose.

  • use MLA (Modern Language Association) or APA (American Psychological Association) style for formatting rules and documentation.

 

12th Grade

VIRGINIA ELA STANDARDS AND SKILLS

http://www.doe.virginia.gov (Adopted 2010)

 

Grade 12

 

Persuasive Essays

 

12.6    The student will develop expository and informational, analyses, and persuasive/argumentative writings.

 

  1. Generate, gather, and organize ideas for writing to address a specific audience and purpose.

  2. Produce arguments in writing that develop a thesis to demonstrate knowledgeable judgments, address counterclaims, and provide effective conclusions.

  3. Clarify and defend a position with precise and relevant evidence.

  4. Adapt content, vocabulary, voice, and tone to audience, purpose, and situation.

  5. Use a variety of rhetorical strategies to accomplish a specific purpose.

  6. Create arguments free of errors in logic and externally supported.

  7. Revise writing for clarity of content, depth of information and technique of presentation.

h)    Use computer technology to plan, draft, revise, edit, and publish writing.

 

To be successful with this standard, students are expected to:

 

  • construct arguments that:

    • introduce precise, substantive claims;

    • establish the significance of the claims;

    • distinguish them from opposing claims; and

    • sequence information logically (e.g., problem-solution, cause and effect).

 

  • use a range of strategies to elaborate and persuade, such as:

  • descriptions;

  • anecdotes;

  • case studies,

  • analogies;

 

  • develop claim(s) and counterclaims thoroughly, supplying the most relevant data and evidence for each while pointing out the strengths and limitations of both.

  • provide a clear and effective conclusion.

  • clarify and defend positions with precise and relevant evidence, including facts, expert opinions, quotations and/logical reasoning.

  • strategically focus paragraphs by using a variety of techniques.

  • use transition words and phrases to signal progression of ideas within and between paragraphs, and use appropriate words and phrases to signal organizational patterns (e.g., description, question-answer, compare-contrast, problem-solution, cause and effect).  

  • use words, phrases, and clauses to link the major sections of the text.

  • create cohesion, and clarify the relationships between claim(s) and reasons, between reasons and evidence, and between claim(s) and counterclaims.

  • elaborate for clarity and accuracy developing the topic fully with significant and relevant facts, extended definitions, concrete details, and important quotations.

  • develop ideas in a logical sequence.

  • establish and maintain a style and tone.

  • apply persuasive rhetorical devices and techniques including rhetorical questioning, parallel structuring, metaphor, imagery, figures of speech, alliterative expressions, etc., when appropriate.

  • recognize and avoid common logical fallacies or false premises.

  • revise writing to provide depth of information and to adhere to presentation format.

  • use computer technology as available to edit writing before submitting the final copy.

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